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October 6, 2012

“When Rudolf Hoess stood trial at Nuremberg…”

Filed under: Holocaust — Tags: , — furtherglory @ 3:08 pm

In an article which you can read in full here, I read the following information:

When Rudolf Hoess stood trial at Nuremberg, he concluded his testimony by saying he was not a sadistic man and that he had never sanctioned the extermination of the Jews.  He was even proud of how much more humane the gassing process was at Auschwitz compared to Treblinka.

You can read the testimony of Rudolf Hoess at Nuremberg here.

Why was Rudolf Hoess put on trial at Nuremberg?  What were the charges against him?  Was Hoess convicted at Nuremberg?

The article which claims that Rudolf Hoess was put on trial at Nuremberg starts off with this quote:

An Eco-Fascist Gassing Experiment with Diesel Fumes at the EPA
By Mark Musser

It has been recently revealed that the EPA has far surpassed the dark humor of blowing up kids and people on film that global warming scare-mongers promoted a few years back.  In real life, the EPA has been conducting human experiments on people by piping diesel fumes from a running truck mixed with air into their lungs at a North Carolina university.  The agency has ginned up yet another green crusade — the lethal dangers of diesel fumes.  They even had a gas chamber set up to accommodate the environmental research project that shockingly recalls the death camps in Poland.

My readers have probably deduced by now that Rudolf Hoess was not on trial at Nuremberg; he was a defense witness for Ernst Kaltenbrunner.  Hoess was questioned on the witness stand about statements which he had made in his confession, which was read in court by Col. Amen.

The following is the testimony of Rudolf Hoess at Nuremberg:

Testimony on Monday, April 15, 1946
Morning Session

DR. KAUFFMANN: With the agreement of the Tribunal, I now call the witness Hoess.
[The witness Hoess took the stand.]
THE PRESIDENT: Stand up. Will you state your name?
RUDOLF FRANZ FERDINAND HOESS (Witness): Rudolf Franz Ferdinand Hoess.

[…]

COL. AMEN: [quoting from the affidavit given by Hoess prior to the trial]

“5. On 1 December 1943 1 became Chief of Amt 1 in Amt Group D of the WVHA, and in that office was responsible for co-ordinating all matters arising between RSHA and concentration camps under the administration of WVHA. I held this position until the end of the war. Pohl, as Chief of WVHA, and Kaltenbrunner, as Chief of RSHA, often conferred personally and frequently communicated orally and in writing concerning concentration camps. . . .”
You have already told us about the lengthy report which you took to Kaltenbrunner in Berlin, so I will omit the remainder of Paragraph 5.
“6. The ‘final solution’ of the Jewish question meant the complete extermination of all Jews in Europe. I was ordered to establish extermination facilities at Auschwitz in June 1941. At that time, there were already in the General Government three other extermination camps: Belzek, Treblinka, and Wolzek. These camps were under the Einsatzkommando of the Security Police and SD. I visited Treblinka to find out how they carried out their exterminations. The camp commandant at Treblinka told me that he had liquidated 80,000 in the course of one-half year. He was principally concerned with liquidating all the Jews from the Warsaw Ghetto. He used [carbon] monoxide gas, and I did not think that his methods were very efficient. So when I set up the extermination building at Auschwitz, I used Cyklon B, which was a crystallized prussic acid which we dropped into the death chamber from a small opening. It took from 3 to 15 minutes to kill the people in the death chamber, depending upon climatic conditions. We knew when the people were dead because their screaming stopped. We usually waited about one-half hour before we opened the doors and removed the bodies. After the bodies were removed our special Kommandos took off the rings and extracted the gold from the teeth of the corpses.”
Is that all true and correct, Witness?
HOESS: Yes.
COL. AMEN: Incidentally, what was done with the gold which was taken from the teeth of the corpses, do you know?
HOESS: Yes.
COL. AMEN: Will you tell the Tribunal?
HOESS: This gold was melted down and brought to the Chief Medical Office of the SS at Berlin.
COL. AMEN:  [quoting from the affidavit given by Hoess]
“7 Another improvement we made over Treblinka was that we built our gas chamber [in the main Auschwitz camp] to accommodate 2,000 people at one time whereas at Treblinka their 10 gas chambers only accommodated 200 people each. The way we selected our victims was as follows: We had two SS doctors on duty at Auschwitz to examine the incoming transports of prisoners. The prisoners would be marched by one of the doctors who would make spot decisions as they walked by. Those who were fit for work were sent into the camp. Others were sent immediately to the extermination plants. Children of tender years were invariably exterminated since by reason of their youth they were unable to work. Still another improvement we made over Treblinka was that at Treblinka the victims almost always knew that they were to be exterminated and at Auschwitz we endeavored to fool the victims into thinking that they were to go through a delousing process. Of course, frequently they realized our true intentions and we sometimes had riots and difficulties due to that fact. Very frequently women would hide their children under the clothes, but of course when we found them we would send the children in to be exterminated. We were required to carry out these exterminations in secrecy but of course the foul and nauseating stench from the continuous burning of bodies permeated the entire area and all of the people living in the surrounding communities knew that exterminations were going on at Auschwitz.”
Is that all true and correct, Witness?
HOESS: Yes.
COL. AMEN: Now, I will omit Paragraphs 8 and 9, which have to do with the medical experiments as to which you have already testified.
“10. Rudolf Mildner was the chief of the Gestapo at Katowice . . . from approximately March 1941 until September 1943. As such, he frequently sent prisoners to Auschwitz for incarceration or execution. He visited Auschwitz on several occasions. The Gestapo court, the SS Standgericht, which tried persons accused of various crimes, such as escaping prisoners of war, et cetera, frequently met within Auschwitz, and Mildner often attended the trial of such persons, who usually were executed in Auschwitz following their sentence. I showed Mildner through the extermination plant at Auschwitz and he was directly interested in it since he had to send the Jews from his territory for execution at Auschwitz.
“I understand English as it is written above. The above statements are true; this declaration is made by me voluntarily and without compulsion; after reading over the statement I have signed and executed the same at Nuremberg, Germany, on the fifth day of April 1946.”
Now I ask you, Witness, is everything which I have read to you true to your own knowledge?
HOESS: Yes.

Note that Hoess made a mistake when he said that the three Operation Reinhard camps were Belzec, Treblinka and Wolzek.  The third one was actually named Sobibor.

Note that Hoess said that the gas chamber at the Auschwitz main camp could gas 2,000 people at one time. If 2,000 people were put into the gas chamber at the main camp, there would have been no need for gas.  The victims would have died as the result of being crushed to death.  The gas chamber room was not large enough to accomodate 2,000 people.

Note that Hoess said that the gas was dropped into the gas chamber through “a small opening.”  According to the official Holocaust story, which you must believe in order to avoid going to prison for up to five years, there were four openings through which the gas pellets were dropped into the gas chamber in the main Auschwitz camp.  The four openings have been reconstructed, so that the 1.5 million tourists who visit Auschwitz each year can see them.

Note that Hoess said that the length of time that it took for the victims to die in the Auschwitz gas chamber was 3 to 15 minutes, “depending on climatic conditions.”   This was because the gas chamber had no way to heat it to 78.3 degrees, the temperature at which the gas was released.  In cold weather, it took longer for the body heat of the victims to heat the chamber to 78.3 degrees.

Why did Rudolf Hoess make so many mistakes in his affidavit which was read in court?  Who actually wrote his confession for him?  If Hoess wrote his confession himself, why did he make so many mistakes?

BTW, Hoess was put on trial in Poland.  He was convicted and hanged near the gas chamber in the main Auschwitz camp.

11 Comments

  1. ” I was ordered to establish extermination facilities at Auschwitz in June 1941.”

    “The Wannsee Conference was a meeting of senior officials of the Nazi German regime, held in the Berlin suburb of Wannsee on 20 January 1942.”
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wannsee_Conference

    What exactly was the point of the Wannsee conference then? Why decide to send the jews in single sex columns to the East, constructing roads as they go and gass…errr…working them to death when something else had been decided already?

    Comment by Question everything — October 11, 2012 @ 7:34 am

  2. You did not mention that Hoess was executed for war crimes. Unless we are prepared to say that Hoess was executed without a trial, we must admit in some way that he did indeed stand trial at Nuremberg, no matter how strange some of the testimonial circumstances were that led to his execution. He was appropriately hanged at Auschwitz in 1947.

    Comment by Mark Musser — October 8, 2012 @ 9:55 am

    • Did you miss the last line of my blog post: “BTW, Hoess was put on trial in Poland. He was convicted and hanged near the gas chamber in the main Auschwitz camp.”

      You are correct that Hoess “did indeed stand trial at Nuremberg.” The Allies took advantage of the fact that he was called as a DEFENSE witness for Kaltenbrunner who was on trial. The Allies then, in effect, put Hoess on trial. This should not have been allowed at Nuremberg. Hoess was a “war criminal” under the ex-post-facto law of “common design” which meant that anyone who was anywhere near a location where Jews died was a “war criminal” because he was responsible for the Jews dying. Hoess didn’t personally kill anyone and he did not give an order to kill anyone.

      Comment by furtherglory — October 8, 2012 @ 10:23 am

    • Thanks so much for the informative response.

      Comment by Mark Musser — October 8, 2012 @ 11:33 am

  3. Herewith a rather lengthy reply to our little Bunny in England regarding the interrogation of Frau Höß, her children and her husband:
    BRITISH METHOD OF INTERROGATION
    There was a burning thirst for revenge on those who had executed Hitler’s notorious eastern policy. But it could not be slaked immediately. In the case of Rudolph Hoess,[the correct spelling should be Höß, but it is sometimes spelled as Höss or Hoess, sic] also Commandant of Auschwitz, it was to take over a year from the war’s end. […] At 5 pm on 11 march 1946, Frau Hoess opened her front door to six intelligence specialists in British uniform, most of the tall and menacing all of then practised in the more sophisticated techniques of sustained and merciless investigation. […] Then all at once his manner [Clarke’s} had changed and he was shouting: ‘If you don’t tell us we’ll turn you over to the Russians and they’ll put you before a firing-squad. Your son will go to Siberia.’ It proved enough. Eventually, a broken Frau Hoess betrayed the whereabouts of the former Auschwitz Kommandant, the man who now called himself Franz Lang. Suitable intimidation of the son and daughter produced precisely identical information. […] Clarke recalls vividly: “He was lying on top of a three-tier bunker wearing a new pair of silk pyjamas. We discovered later that he had lost the cyanide pill most of them carried. [In fact, Höss stated: My phial of poison had been broken two days before,sic] Not that he would have had much chance to use it because we had rammed a torch into his mouth”. Hoess screamed in terror at the mere sight of British uniforms. Clarke yelled: What is your name? With each answer of ‚Franz Lang‘, Clarke’s fist crashed into the face of the prisoner. The fourth time that happened, Hoess broke and admitted who he was. The admission suddenly unleashed the loathing of the Jewish sergeants in the arresting party whose parents had died in Auschwitz following an order signed by Hoess. The prisoner was torn from the top bunk, the pyjamas ripped from his body. He was then dragged naked to one of the slaughter tables, where it seemed to Clarke the blows and screams were endless. Eventually, the Medical Officer urged the Captain: “Call them off, unless you want to take back a corpse.”A blanket was thrown over Hoess and he was dragged to Clarke’s car, where the sergeant poured a substantial slug of whisky down his throat. Then Hoess tried to sleep. Clarke thrust his service stick under the man’s eyelids and ordered in German: “Keep your pig eyes open, you swine”. The party arrived back at Heide around three in the morning. The snow was swirling still, but the blanket was torn from Hoess and he was made to walk completely nude through the prison yard to his cell. It took three days to get a coherent statement out of him. But once he started talking, there was no holding him.
    Mr. Ken Jones was then a private with the fifth Royal Horse Artillery stationed at Heide in Schleswig-Holstein. “They brought him to us when he refused to cooperate over questioning about his activities during the war. He came in the winter of 1945/6 and was put in a small jail cell in the barracks,” recalls Mr. Jones. Two other soldiers were detailed with Mr. Jones to join Höss in his cell to help break him down for interrogation. “We sat in the cell with him, night and day, armed with axe handles. Our job was to prod him every time he fell asleep to help break down his resistance,” said Mr. Jones. When Höss was taken out for exercise he was made to wear only jeans and a thin cotton shirt in the bitter cold. After three days and nights without sleep, Höss finally broke down and made a full confession to the authorities.Clarke’s statement, obtained under the conditions just described by bullies of British Military Security under the brutal inspiration of sergeant-interpreter Bernard Clarke, became Höss’s first confession, the original confession indexed under the number NO-1210. At the Nuremberg tribunal Höss conducted himself with a “schizoid apathy.” The expression is that of the American prison psychologist, G.M. Gilbert, who was in charge of the psychological surveillance of the prisoners and whose eavesdropping aided the American prosecution. We can certainly believe that Höss was “split in two”! He had the appearance of a rag because they had turned him into a rag.
    At the end of his trial at Cracow; Höss greeted his death sentence with apparent indifference, Rupert Butler comments as follows:
    Höss reasoned that the Allies had their orders and, that there could be absolutely no question of these not being carried out. (ibid.)One could not say it any better. It seems that Rudolf Höss, like thousands of accused Germans turned over to the mercy of conquerors who were totally convinced of their own goodness, had quickly grasped that he had no other choice but to suffer the will of his judges, whether they came from the West or from the East.
    Here are the words Höss uses to describe, in succession, his arrest by the British; his signing of the document that would that would become NO-1210; his transfer to Minden-on-the-Weser, where the treatment that he underwent was worse yet; his stay at the Nuremberg tribunal’s prison; and, finally, his extradition to Poland.:
    “I was arrested on 11 March 1946 (at 11 pm). My phial of poison had been broken two days before.
    When I was aroused from sleep, I thought at first I was being attacked by robbers, for many robberies were taking place at that time. That was how they managed to arrest me. I was maltreated by the Field Security Police.I was taken to Heide where I was put in those very barracks from which I had been released by the Bntish eight months earlier. At my first interrogation, evidence was obtained by beating me. I do not know what is in the record, although I signed it. Alcohol and the whip were too much for me. The whip was my own, which by chance had got into my wife’s luggage. It had hardly ever touched my horse, far less the prisoners. Nevertheless, one of my interrogators was convinced that I had perpetually used it for flogging the prisoners. After some days I was taken to Minden-on-the-Weser, the main interrogation centre in the British Zone. There I received further rough treatment at the hands of the English public prosecutor, a major.The conditions in the prison accorded with this behaviour.
    After three weeks, to my surprise, I was shaved and had my hair cut and I was allowed to wash. My handcuffs had not previously been removed since my arrest.
    On the next day I was taken by lorry to Nuremberg, together with a prisoner of war who had been brought over from London as a witness in Fritzsche’s defence. My impnsonment by the Intemational Military Tribunal was a rest-cure compared to what I had been through before. I was accommodated in the same building as the principal accused, and was able to see them daily as they were taken to the court. Almost every day we were visited by representatives for all the Allied nations. I was always pointed out as an especially interesting animal.
    I was in Nuremberg because Kaltenbrunner’s counsel had demanded me as a witness for his defence. I have never been able to grasp, and it is still not clear to me, how I of all people could have helped to exonerate Kaltenbrunner. Although the conditions in prison were, in every respect, good — I read whenever I had the time, and there was a well stocked library available — the interrogations were extremely unpleasant, not so much physically, but far more because of their strong psychological effect. I cannot really blame the interrogators — they were all Jews.
    Psychologically I was almost cut in pieces. They wanted to know all about everything, and this was also done by Jews. They left me in no doubt whatever as to the fate that was in store for me.
    On 25 May, my wedding anniversary as it happened, I was driven with von Burgsdorff and Bühler to the aerodrome and there handed over to Polish officers. We flew in an American plane via Berlin to Warsaw. Although we were treated very politely during our journey, I feared the worst when I remembered my experiences in the British Zone and the tales I had heard about the way people were being treated in the East”.
    “CONFESSEN’ OF 15 MARCH 1946
    “We had rammed a torch in his mouth [this was to check according to Clarke, to see if Höss had a poison pill in his mouth, as he alleges they all had them, [which in most cases were glass capsules, sic] The blows and the screams were endless”. Statement by Bernard Clarke
    After the abduction, Bernard Clarke took three days until Höss finally started talking and said what he wanted to hear. In the allegedly sustained Polish-Soviet captivity autobiography, Rudolf Höss says: “Under the circumstances of this “first hearing”, the overwhelming evidence came during my first interrogation. What stands in the records, I do not know, although I signed it. Alcohol and the whip were too much for me.
    And even before his interrogation as a “defence witness” before the Nuremberg Tribunal in the trial of Hans Fritsche another defence witness Moritz von Schirmeister, Hoess said: ‘Gewiss, ich habe unterschrieben, dass ich 2 Millionen Juden umgebracht habe. Aber ich hätte genausogut untershrieben, dass es 5 Millionen Juden gewesen sind. Es gibt eben Methoden, mit denen man jedes Geständnis erreichen kann — ob es nun wahr ist oder nicht’.
    “Certainly, I signed that I have killed 2 1/2 million Jews. But I might as well sign that there have been 5 million Jews. There are just ways that you can reach any admission – whether it’s true or not”.
    On 15 March 1946 Rudolf Höss signed at two thirty in the morning an eight-sided typed “document” in German ( NO-1210 ) which contains numerous spelling and grammatical errors as well as deleted sentences and apparently is a derivative of a “translation” marked as the English text.
    Another Confession Signed by Rudolf Höss:
    The British torturers of Rudolf Höss had no reason to exercise any restraint. After making him sign document NO-1210 at 2:30 in the morning of the l4th or l5th of March 1946, they obtained a new signature from him on March 16, this time at the bottom of a text in English, written in an English handwriting style, with a blank in the space where the name of the place ought to have been given. His guards made him sign a simple note written in English:
    Statement made voluntarily at ______ Gaol by Rudolf Höss, former Commandant of Auschwitz Concentration Camp on 16th day of March 1946. “I personally arranged on orders received from Himmler in May 1941 the gassing of two million persons between June/July 1941 and the end of 1943 during which time I was commandant of Auschwitz”. signed.
    Rudolf Höss,
    SS-Stubhr.
    Eh. (?) Kdt. v. Auschwitz-Birkenau(even the word “signed” was written in an English hand).
    Bernard Clarke is “today a successful businessman working in the south of England” (Legions of Death, 1983, p. 235). One can in fact say that it is his voice that was heard at Nuremberg on 15 April 1946, when Assistant Prosecutor Amen read, piece by piece, to an astonished and overwhelmed audience, the supposed confession of Rudolf Höss.

    Comment by Herbert Stolpmann — October 7, 2012 @ 2:52 am

  4. “On the night of 5 March, members of the 92 Field Security Section, consisting of Captain Victor Cross, Sergeant Bernard Clarke and four other soldiers, arrested Hedwig (Hoess) and imprisoned her. She was separated from the children and locked in a cell on her own. The eldest children were questioned, whilst the youngest were cared for by a specially trained team. For the next five days Hedwig was interrogated. She was repeatedly asked to disclose the whereabouts of her husband but each time she stubbornly insisted that he was dead. The guards finally decided to trick her into revealing the truth. Officers organised for a train to be shunted along a railway line, directly behind Hedwig’s cell, making as much noise as possible. Captain Cross wrote:

    ‘We informed Frau Hoess that the train outside was to take her three sons [In fact she only had two sons—Klaus and Burling] to Sibera, unless she told us where her husband was, and his aliases; if she did not do this then she could have two minutes to say goodbye to her sons, or tell us what we wanted to know. We left her for ten minutes or so with paper and pencil to write down the information we required. Fortunately our bluff worked; she wrote down the information an she and her sons were sent home.’ ”

    (Captain Victor Cross, Field Security Section, Report: March 15, 1946)

    – “The Commandant” (2008) by Ian Baxter, p.175

    Comment by The Black Rabbit of Inlé — October 6, 2012 @ 9:32 pm

  5. Once again…its Operation Reinhardt, not Reinhard…

    Comment by schlageter — October 6, 2012 @ 5:19 pm

    • If I had spelled it Reinhardt, I would have gotten 10 comments telling me that it is actually Reinhard. By calling it Operation Reinhard, I get only one comment telling me that I am wrong. Wikipedia and the USHMM both use the name Reinhard.

      Comment by furtherglory — October 6, 2012 @ 8:23 pm

      • It is named after Fritz Reinhardt, State Secretary of the Finance Ministry, who collected the loot from the Jews taken care of. Those other sources are pogues.

        Comment by Schlageter — October 7, 2012 @ 2:15 pm


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