Scrapbookpages Blog

December 11, 2012

The killing of civilians by the Allies in World War II…and the case of Rudolf Merkel

Filed under: Dachau, World War II — Tags: , — furtherglory @ 9:11 am

Rudolf Merkel was a 16-year-old German boy who was put on trial by the American Military Tribunal after World War II and sentenced to life in prison for hitting a downed American flyer with a stick.  I thought about this young boy when I read a comment on my blog, written by a German-American, who is justifiably angry about the war crimes committed by the Allies in World War II, particularly the bombing of German cities and the killing of civilians, even after the war had been won.

I am quoting the comment in full because this is important information that young people today are not taught in their Holocaust education classes:

Even if the holocaust hoax were true, the war crimes and mass atrocities committed by the US and Britain were far worse and far more cowardly than anything the Nazis are even accused of committing. The US and Britain murdered as many people as they possibly could—women, children, babies included—by deliberately r-o-a-s-t-i-n-g them to death with massive incendiary air attacks and firestorms (“strategic bombing” and “area bombing”), with incendiary bombs including napalm, and even with nuclear bombs. If the numbers murdered by the US and Britain did not exceed the mythical “six million” number, it was not for any lack of trying. The Americans and Brits turned entire cities into crematory ovens—for victims who were still alive. The magnitude of those horrors grew to biblical proportions just as the end of the war grew near and the dangers to the US and Britain diminished to nothing at all. Shame on the cowardly victors! Shame on America! Shame on Britain! And, lest anyone is still totally decieved, it was the British—with encouragement from the US—who began the deliberate mass murder of civilians with their attacks on Germany in 1940 as Patrick Buchanan has explained. It was the British who bombed Berlin five times in August and September of 1940 before Hitler responded, reluctantly as he explained on radio, with the first German air attack on any British city, London, on September 7, 1940. If the Nazis had murdered people with poison gas, that would have been humane by comparison to Anglo-American firebombing.. When the victors were no longer able to simply murder Germans or “Japs” because the war had ended—they were still able to spread the most outrageous lies about the Germans, and that continues to this day. Who is left to stop them? Who dares to even try

I wrote about the case of Rudolf Merkel on my website scrapbookpages.com.  This information is copied from my website:

Rudolf Merkel

Sixteen-year-old Rudolf Merkel was the youngest war criminal in the Dachau trials and, at 19, the youngest inmate of Landsberg prison. He was tried before the US military tribunal at Dachau in 1947, along with 14 other German civilians, for the murder of three American flyers whose planes were shot down in August 1944 in the vicinity of Gernsbach, a German village near the French border. All of the flyers had surrendered, and according to international law, should have been treated as Prisoners of War by the civilians who were at the scene. But these German villagers were seeking vengeance because American and British planes had been bombing civilian targets and killing innocent people. The British and American policy of deliberately bombing civilians was designed to destroy the morale of the German people and force them to surrender. An estimated 600,000 German civilians were killed in the Allied bombing and virtually every city in Germany suffered bomb damage.

In three separate incidents near Gernsbach in August 1944, a group of local men brutally beat a downed American flyer, then deliberately killed him, and buried the body in the local cemetery. Merkel was a 16-year-old farm boy at the time, and like all German boys his age, a member of the Hitler Youth. He was 6 months too young to be in the German Army, and all the others in the case were too old to fight on the battlefield. One of the downed pilots had parachuted to earth and landed on a hill near Merkel’s home in the village of Weisenbach. Merkel was one of three villagers who found the wounded pilot under a bush and started to carry him down the hill. They were interrupted by another villager, Adolf Eiermann, who ordered them to beat the pilot, later identified as Sgt. Robert A. McDonough. According to testimony at the trial, Merkel was urged by one of the participants, Hermann Krieg, to strike the flyer twice with a stick after the man was most likely already dead. For their crimes, Merkel was sentenced by the American military tribunal to hard labor at Landsberg prison for life, and Krieg received the death sentence.

In his final statement to the court, before the verdict was handed down, Merkel indicated that he had not known that he was participating in a “common design” to commit war crimes, the first charge in the Charge Sheet. As quoted by Joseph Halow in “Innocent at Dachau,” his statement was as follows:

“Yes. I must tell the High Court here that I didn’t know anything about the first charge as it is in the Charge Sheet. The first charge accuses me, but I must say that at that time I was only 16 years old and I didn’t know anything about that; I didn’t know what was being done, and later on, in order to prevent anything like that from happening, I carried the flyer down there; and I must mention here I never have had any previous conviction and my parents never had any, either. And I would like to say also, that we have a small farm at home. My mother and father live there alone with two small children, the house is broken down and everything has gone to the dogs, and I beg the High Court to pass a just verdict.”

When the Gernsbach case came up for review, three of the 14 convictions were overturned, and 2 of the death sentences were reduced, including Krieg’s sentence which was reduced to 10 years. The guilty verdict for Rudolf Merkel was upheld, but his sentence was reduced to 15 years at hard labor. In the opinion of the review counsel, the evidence against Merkel was sufficient to establish that “he participated in and acted in furtherance of the common design embraced in the particulars of Charge I.” However, the review counsel also said that “Notice should be taken of this accused’s tender years at the time he committed these offenses.”

Note the use of the word “accused,” rather than the usual term “defendant.” All the German war criminals were called “the accused” because they were presumed guilty and the burden of proof was upon them. Note also the use of the plural “offenses” although Merkel had only struck one of the flyers and was not even present when the other two were killed. Under the “common design” of the charges, all the accused were guilty in all three incidents because they were carrying out a common plan to deliberately kill downed American pilots. Nevertheless, because of his young age at the time of his crime, the review board considered his life sentence at hard labor to be too harsh.

Merkel hired a German lawyer and petitioned for clemency. The man who had urged Merkel to participate in beating the downed flyer, Hermann Krieg, had been originally sentenced to death by hanging, but the review board had reduced his sentence to 10 years in prison. For some inexplicable reason, the review board had ruled that Merkel’s punishment should be more severe than Krieg’s. Because of this, Merkel’s German lawyer asked for his client’s sentence to be further reduced.

According to court reporter Joseph Halow, in his book “Innocent at Dachau,” Merkel’s petition for clemency contained an accusation against Harry Thon, a Jewish interrogator for the Dachau trials. He quotes Merkel’s statement to the court as follows:

“During the interrogation on August 1946, the interrogator, allegedly Mr. THOM (sic), who spoke German well, laid a pistol on the table and said to me I could choose now; if I told the truth they would turn me loose, otherwise there would be the pistol. I understood this to mean that he would shoot me if I did not testify how he wanted me to. I kept stating what is true.”

Rudolf Merkel was finally released from Landsberg prison on September 18, 1951 after his sentence was commuted. He was 23 years old. Krieg was released 5 months later. Four of the other accused civilians in the Gernsbach downed flyers case were executed by hanging, including Adolf Eiermann, the instigator in the beating of McDonough. All the others were released from prison within ten years.

A mound of rubble that was covered over in the city of Berlin

A mound of rubble that was covered over in the city of Berlin

Berlin, the capital city of Germany, was bombed 24 times between November 18, 1943 and March 1944, and sporadic hits continued until the city was captured by the Russian army in April, 1945. By that time, the city had been reduced to 98 million cubic yards of rubble.

Each of the bomb attacks on Berlin involved over 1,000 planes and the dropping of up to 2,000 tons of bombs. Half of the city’s bridges were destroyed and the underground railway tunnels were flooded. There was no gas, electricity or water in the central portion of the city. The pre-war population of 4.3 million had been reduced to 2.8 million, as people were forced to flee the city; some 1.5 million people became homeless when their homes were bombed.

One out of 7 of the buildings destroyed in Germany by the Allied bombing were in Berlin. Out of a total of 245,000 buildings in Berlin, 50,000 had been completely destroyed and 23,000 had been severely damaged; 80,000 residents of the city had been killed. Even the trees in the Tiergarten, a large park in the center of the city, had been killed in the Battle of Berlin. There were so many historic buildings destroyed that Berliners jokingly referred to the American and British air raids as Baedecker Bombing. Baedecker travel guide books were used by tourists to locate famous and historic buildings.

A mere 5 years earlier, after the conquest of France in 6 weeks time, Hitler had visited Paris and taken an early morning tour of the deserted streets to see the famous buildings of the capital city, which were all still intact. Hitler’s earliest ambition had been to be an architect, and he made sure that the beautiful buildings of Paris were not destroyed.

You can read more about the Dachau trials on my website at http://www.scrapbookpages.com/DachauScrapbook/DachauTrials/index.html

The US Holocaust Memorial Museum has downgraded Majdanek “killing center”

Filed under: Holocaust — Tags: , , , — furtherglory @ 6:51 am

If you type http://www.thirdreich.com into your computer, what do you get?  With a domain name like thirdreich.com, you might expect to find a website like http://www.nazigassings.com, but you would be disappointed.  The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum owns the domain name thirdreich.com.

If you try to access thirdreich.com, you will be directed here, where you will find this quote about Majdanek, which is one of the “six killing centers” of the Holocaust:

MAJDANEK

Though many scholars have traditionally counted the Majdanek camp as a sixth killing center, recent research had shed more light on the functions and operations at Lublin/Majdanek. Within the framework of Operation Reinhard, Majdanek primarily served to concentrate Jews whom the Germans spared temporarily for forced labor. It occasionally functioned as a killing site to murder victims who could not be killed at the Operation Reinhard killing centers: Belzec, Sobibor, and Treblinka II. It also contained a storage depot for property and valuables taken from the Jewish victims at the killing centers.

“Majdanek occasionally functioned as a killing site to murder victims who could not be killed at Belzec, Sobibor and Treblinka II?”  What does this mean?

Were there some Jews who were so resistant to Zyklon-B that they had to be brought to a special gas chamber at Majdanek because they “could not be killed at the Operation Reinhard killing centers”?

Actually, I’ve never heard of a Holocaust survivor who claimed to have survived the Majdanek gas chamber, although there were many survivors of other Nazi gas chambers, including a young boy who survived the gas chamber at Bergen-Belsen six times.

Casting of a gas chamber door at Majdanek

Casting of a gas chamber door at Majdanek

The photo above shows a gas chamber door that is displayed in the US Holocaust Memorial Museum.  It is a casting of a gas chamber door at Majdanek.  You can read more about the Majdanek gas chamber on my website here.

Why is the USHMM downgrading Majdanek?  Could it be because the Memorial Site at Majdanek is now saying that the total number of Jews who died there, of all causes, is 59,000?

When the Majdanek camp was liberated on July 23, 1944 by soldiers in the army of the Soviet Union, it was at first announced to the world that 1.7 million people had been murdered there by the Nazis. By the time that the Nuremberg International Military Tribunal proceedings against the Nazi war criminals began in November 1945, the Soviets had revised this number down to 1.5 million.  Testimony given at the Nuremberg IMT was that 1.5 million people had died at Majdanek.

In December 2005, the Museum at the Majdanek Memorial Site announced that Lublin scholar Tomasz Kranz has established that there was a total of 78,000 deaths at the Majdanek camp, including 59,000 Jewish deaths. According to the Museum, this revised number is the culmination of years of research in which the number of deaths at Majdanek has steadily dwindled down to only a fraction of the original estimate by the Soviet liberators.

I previously blogged about the Majdanek gas chamber here.

I blogged about the glass window in the Majdanek gas chamber here.