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January 27, 2013

Survivors of the Ebensee subcamp of Mauthausen claimed to be subjects of medical experiments

Filed under: Dachau, Health, Holocaust — Tags: , , — furtherglory @ 12:00 pm
Army Signal Core photo of Ebensee survivors, May 7, 1945

Army Signal Core photo of Ebensee survivors, May 7, 1945

You can check here to confirm that the photo above was taken by the US Army Signal Core at the Ebensee sub-camp of Mauthausen.

This quote, concerning the photo, is from the web page, cited above:

ARC Identifier: 531271
Title: Starved prisoners, nearly dead from hunger, pose in concentration camp in Ebensee, Austria. The camp was reputedly used for “scientific” experiments. It was liberated by the 80th Division., 05/07/1945

Creator: Department of Defense. Department of the Army. Office of the Chief Signal Officer. (09/18/1947 – 02/28/1964) ( Most Recent)

Type of Archival Materials:
Photographs and other Graphic Materials
Level of Description:
Item from Record Group 111: Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer, 1860 – 1982

Note that the description of the photo says that the camp (Ebensee), where this photo was taken, was reputedly used for “scientific” experiments. Reputedly?  Sorry, not good enough.

This same photo is shown on this web page, but without a caption.  The text adjacent to the photo reads as follows:

In Auschwitz experimental medicine was tried by doctors (namely Dr. Helmuth Vetter) on sick patients, mostly typhus.  However, even when it was obvious the patient was being hurt, the experiment would continue.  Many patients lost their lives and few were saved.  Even worse, the experiments were not trying to cure the patients but to see bodily reactions to the disease and different medicine.

(survivors from the medical ward)

In conclusion, by carrying out these experiments and trying them on inmates in the camps, the Nazi physicians broke their Hippocratic Oath (stated in the Introduction) that had been put in place and followed for almost two thousand years.  They not only broke their promise as a doctor but they killed and injured many innocent prisoners for the simple reason of wanting to find out how individuals would react to different amounts and types of medicines.

The photo of the Ebensee survivors is shown in the space next to the words (survivors from the medical ward).  The web page that shows this photo and identifies it as the “survivors from a medical ward” is from the website of the University of California at Santa Barbara, specifically from the website of faculty member Harold Marcuse.  The article, written by Professor Marcuse, concerns “The book Nazi Medicine: Doctors, Victims and Medicine in Auschwitz by Howard Fertig explores the role of medicine and those affected by it in the Auschwitz concentration camp.”

Even though the photo might show survivors of a medical experiment, the men in the photo are probably not survivors of the medical experiments in Block 20 in Auschwitz, which is what the article is about.  The survivors of the Auschwitz experiments might have joined the “death march” out of Auschwitz, and they might have ended up at Ebensee, where there was a typhus epidemic in progress, but it is highly unlikely.

The photo below, which is also included in the article about Nazi medical experiments, was taken in the typhus ward at Dachau; American doctors are caring for the typhus patients.

Prisoners in the typhus ward at Dachau

Prisoners in the typhus ward at Dachau

The above photo was taken by the US Army Signal Core at Dachau; yet it is used in a history course by the University of California at Santa Barbara to illustrate Nazi medical experiments.  What’s wrong with that, you ask?  Substituting photos is totally disingenuous and should be against the law.  The photo should be identified, on the UCSB website, as being a photo taken in a typhus ward at Dachau.

As for the Ebensee camp, here is the real story, which the students at Santa Barbara should have been told.

Gate into the Ebensee subcamp

Gate into the Ebensee subcamp

The photograph above was taken on May 6, 1945, after Ebensee, a sub-camp of the Mauthausen Concentration Camp, was liberated by soldiers in the 80th Division of the US Third Army on May 4th and 5th.

The banner, written in French, reads “The French prisoners Salute the Allies.” It was erected by the anti-Nazi resistance fighters who were imprisoned here after being captured and accused of doing acts of sabotage during the Nazi occupation of France.

German Ebensee prisoners welcome their liberators

German Ebensee prisoners welcome their liberators

The photograph above shows a sign that was erected by the German prisoners in the Ebensee camp. The English translation is  “We welcome our liberators.” Among the German prisoners were some who were condemned criminals that had been released from the regular prisons and sent to work in the concentration camps.

The prisoners at Ebensee worked in underground factories which manufactured Messerschmitt airplanes. German engineers and civilians also worked in these factories. The Ebensee site was chosen because there were natural caves which could be enlarged into tunnels so that the munitions factories could be protected from Allied bombing raids.

According to Martin Gilbert, the author of a book entitled Holocaust, Ebensee was an “end destination” for Jewish prisoners who were evacuated from camps farther east as the Soviet Army advanced toward Germany. In the last months of the war, the Ebensee camp was seriously over-crowded with these exhausted prisoners, many of whom had just arrived in the weeks prior to the liberation.

Children at the Ebensee camp after it was liberated

Children at the Ebensee camp after it was liberated

Martin Gilbert wrote the following regarding the evacuations and the death marches:

Jews who had already survived the “selections” in Birkenau, and work as slave laborers in factories, had now to survive the death marches. Throughout February and March [1945] columns of men, and crowded cattle trucks, converged on the long-existing concentration camps, now given a new task. These camps had been transformed into holding camps for the remnant of a destroyed people, men and women whose labor was still of some last-minute utility for a dying Reich, or whose emaciated bodies were to be left to languish in agony in one final camp.

According to Gilbert’s book, a train loaded with 2,059 Jews arrived at Ebensee on March 3, 1945. They had survived the death camp at Auschwitz-Birkenau and had first been sent to the Gross Rosen concentration camp, then on to Ebensee. Forty-nine of the Jewish prisoners died on the train, and on their first day in the camp, 182 died during the disinfection procedure. New arrivals had to be disinfected to kill the body lice which spreads typhus. There was a typhus epidemic in Mauthausen and the sub-camps and, according to Martin Gilbert, 30,000 prisoners died in these camps in the last four months of the war.

According to Martin Gilbert, the last death marches of the war began on May 1, 1945 as the American Army approached; prisoners from the main camp at Mauthausen and the sub-camps at Gusen and St. Valentin were marched to Gunskirchen and Ebensee. Hundreds of them died from exhaustion, or were shot because they couldn’t keep up, or as they attempted to escape. When American troops in the 80th Infantry Division arrived on May 4, 1945, there were around 60,000 prisoners from 25 different countries at Ebensee.

You can read more about the Ebensee camp on another blog here and here.

22 Comments

  1. i had a friend who was in ebensee he had been transferred through various camps as he was found in belgium without papers and they assumed he was jewish to cut a long story short he ended up in a camp where they had to take stones up a lot of steps and due to the nazis noticing he was not circumcised he was housed with spanish gipsies he saw a man in northern spain who was supposed to have been executed and tried to kill him.he did not suceed and the man disappeared so i firmly believe that many of the medics were given new names and immunity in return for information he was in ebensee

    Comment by Sheila Sutton — April 18, 2016 @ 5:21 am

  2. Would anybody here tell me how to check wether one of my relatives from France died in a US military hospital (possibly 131st evacuation hospital, (American) at Gusen ?) a couple of days after having freed from the KZ Mauthausen ? KZ was freed on may 5th, 1945 by the 11th US Armored Division of the 3rd US Army, my relative reportedly died on may 24th, 1945.

    Comment by FrenchUndergroundInJura — March 14, 2013 @ 10:20 am


  3. The same story,has lost all his 72 relatives and so on.A fake inmate and survivor and a fake jew.

    Comment by gebis — January 29, 2013 @ 7:55 am

    • I hadn’t heard this one, so I looked it up. I found this on the website of David Irving:
      Begin quote
      Falscher KZ-Häftling räumt Fehler ein: Fake Concentration Camp prisoner admits “mistake”. For years Otto Uthgenannt claimed he was a Jew imprisoned in Buchenwald and lost 72 relatives in Hitler’s Holocaust including both parents and a sister. Now he admits he made it all up (and was never a Jew). – Curioser and curioser: His current age, 77, matches a 53 years old Mr Otto Uthgenannt, a German arrested in 1989 in Idaho: in his car police found forged documents, notary stamps, multiple licenses and chequebooks, and “equipment used to make documents.” He spent eight months in jail in Coeur d’Alene fighting extradition to Arizona. He had forged and cashed thousands of dollars in payroll checks.
      End quote

      It is time for more of the fake Buchenwald prisoners to come clean and admit that they were never in the Buchenwald camp. Any Buchenwald survivors who are out giving lectures and raking in money should give their Buchenwald ID number so that their sob story can be verified.

      Comment by furtherglory — January 29, 2013 @ 9:01 am

  4. Typhus was a real blessing for the Allied liars.

    “We won this war with atrocity propaganda…and now we will start more than ever! We will continue this atrocity propaganda, we will increase it until nobody will accept one good word from the Germans anymore, until everything is destroyed which might have upheld them sympathies in other countries, and until they will be so confused that they don’t know what to do anymore. When this is reached, when they begin to pollute their own nest, and this not reluctantly but with hasty willingness to obey the winners, only then the victory is complete. It will never be definite. The reeducation demands thorough, steadfast nurture like English lawn. Only one moment of inattention and the weed will break through, this ineradicable weed of historic truth.” – Sefton Delmer, former British chief propagandist, after the capitulation in 1945, to the German expert on international law Prof. Grimm.

    Comment by hermie — January 29, 2013 @ 12:34 am

  5. The Mauthausen Trial: American Military Justice in Germany is an essential reading; you’ll sit in awe reading how ruthless powerless people become when given the chance.

    It’s available here.

    This one will certainly arouse your interest as well.

    (Both dpst links work)

    Comment by Eager For Answers — January 28, 2013 @ 4:32 pm

  6. The doctor in charge of the infirmary at Ebensee was Dr Willi Jobst, and his assistants were Dr Krindel and Dr. Schulling. All three men spent most of their time signing death certificates. Doctor Willi Jobst, a defendant at the trial of 61 former camp personnel and prisoners from Mauthausen, was convicted and sentenced to death on May 13, 1946 before the International Military Tribunal (IMT), Nürnberg 1945-46. Any documents with letters ‘PS and ‘D’ refer to Mauthausen and Ebensee which I have read do not indicate Medical Experiments on prisoners, nor did anything apparently come up during the IMT trial.

    Comment by Herbert Stolpmann — January 28, 2013 @ 2:25 am

    • I believe that you are slightly confused about the trial of Dr. Jobst. He was one of 61 men, who were put on trial by the American Military Tribunal. He was convicted of participating in a common design to commit war crimes; he was executed on 28 May 1947. I have a page on my website about the trial of the Mauthausen “war criminals.”
      http://www.scrapbookpages.com/DachauScrapbook/DachauTrials/Mauthausen01.html

      The trials conducted by the American Military Tribunal were completely separate from the proceedings of the Nuremberg IMT. America had jurisdiction over all the men and women who were associated with the camps that were liberated by American troops, including Mauthausen. The British and the French also conducted trials against Germans who were arrested in their zones of occupation.

      Gustav Kreindl was also convicted by the American Military Tribunal and was executed on 27 May 1947. The name “Dr. Schulling” is not on the list of SS men who were tried in the first Mauthausen trial by the AMT. Dr. Schulling may have been tried in the “Doctors Trial” conducted by the Nuremberg IMT, or he may have been tried in a secondary trial by the AMT.

      I previously blogged about the second Mauthausen trial at https://furtherglory.wordpress.com/2010/05/05/special-findings-in-the-verdict-of-the-mauthausen-case-before-an-american-military-tribunal-in-1946/

      I really appreciate all the work that you did in researching the Ebensee camp, Mr. Stolpmann. Keep up the good work.

      Comment by furtherglory — January 28, 2013 @ 5:54 am

      • I might be old, but I do’t think, I am confused or muddled up on this subject, we went on a regular weekly trip to the Quarter Master Laundry to what was then called the ‘War Crimes Military Tribunal” at Dachau. I was fully aware where the trial was held. It is still called the IMT Nürnberg in most publications.
        Sixty-one former camp personnel and prisoners from Mauthausen were brought to trial in front of an American Military Tribunal in Dachau, Germany. All of the defendants were charged with violation of the laws and usages of war, and specifically with subjecting non-Germans to killing, beating, torture, and starvation. Among those charged was August Eigruber, the former Gauleiter of Upper Austria and one of the people who helped establish the camp. The trial began March 29 and lasted only six weeks, with the court finding all sixty-one defendants guilty on May 11, saying that there was enough evidence of death by shootings, gassings, hangings and starvation to find every member of the camp personnel culpable. On May 13, the court sentenced fifty-eight of the defendants to death and gave the other three life sentences. Later, nine of the death sentences were reduced to life sentences. Those sentenced to death were hanged on May 27-28, 1947 in the yard of the Landsberg prison.

        Comment by Herbert Stolpmann — January 28, 2013 @ 12:25 pm

        • The Mathausen trial must have been one of the biggest kangaroo courts the US conducted after the war. I had not realised that 58 of the 61 had been sentenced to death on hearsay evidence!.

          Comment by Pete — January 28, 2013 @ 12:36 pm

          • College students still study the Mauthausen trial because of the ruling by Major General Fay B. Prickett in which he said that there was enough evidence in the 1st trial to convict all future defendants in subsequent trials. In other words, the “war criminals” who were on trial in subsequent proceedings were automatically guilty, even before the trial began. I wrote about this on my website at http://www.scrapbookpages.com/DachauScrapbook/DachauTrials/Mauthausen07.html Students in several colleges are required to write a paper justifying the famous ruling by Prickett, which was never used before or since. I get lots of e-mail with questions on this subject.

            Sorry but I tell the students that this ruling was not justified and that it was illegal. A judge in a trial cannot legally make up new rules in which defendants are guilty before the trial begins.

            Comment by furtherglory — January 28, 2013 @ 1:09 pm

            • FG
              As a Post Script to the Title: “Starved prisoners, nearly dead from hunger, pose in concentration camp in Ebensee, Austria”, all I can say to you and your readers that I reached that stage of the of starvation as a POW under Eisenhower within 10 days after receiving no food or water, according to his orders to all Allied Forces (Montgomery did not follow these instructions after consultation with Churchill). All I received was one pint of watery soup with dried onions in them. My weight was down to 50 kg(112lbs) and I could no longer walk, thus became a Muselmann, but was slowly nourished back to reasonable health at (German) Army Field Hospital. My average weight at the height of 1,82 m has always been steady at 80 kg (182lbs). You very rarely ever see pictures or comments of what was going on at the end of 1945,that he, Eisenhower, maintained Death Camps, Where allegedly 1.7 Million Germans died of hunger. Yet I doubt this figure

              Comment by Herbert Stolpmann — January 28, 2013 @ 2:38 pm

              • This comment is nonsense. No one can loose weight to such or even similar degree in 10 days. Former Auschwitz and Dachau prisoner.

                Comment by ersei — February 15, 2013 @ 10:56 am

        • You wrote “…what was then called the ‘War Crimes Military Tribunal” at Dachau. I was fully aware where the trial was held. It is still called the IMT Nürnberg in most publications.”

          If any publications refer to the trials conducted by the American Military Tribunal as “IMT Nürnberg” they are wrong because the proceedings at Dachau were called the proceedings of the AMT.

          Comment by furtherglory — January 28, 2013 @ 12:54 pm

    • Do you mean Dr. Klaus Schilling, not “Dr. Schulling”? I have a page on my website about Dr. Schilling: http://www.scrapbookpages.com/DachauScrapbook/DachauTrials/KlausSchilling.html

      Comment by furtherglory — January 28, 2013 @ 9:58 am

      • The records that were made available to me shows the name of Dr Schulling as assistance doctor at Ebensee.
        Dr. Klaus Karl Schilling, is some else, a physician who infected over one thousand prisoners with malaria in his experiments at the Dachau camp, defends himself at the trial of former camp personnel and prisoners from Dachau. In his appeal in English after cross examination, Schilling explained, “I have worked out this great labor. It would be really a terrible loss if I could not finish this work. I don’t ask you as a court, I ask you personally to do what you can; to help me that I may finish this report. I need only a table and a chair and a typewriter. It would be an enormous help for science, for my colleagues, and a good part to rehabilitate myself.” His voice then broke and he cried. He was together with thirty-six others sentenced to death by hanging.

        Comment by Herbert Stolpmann — January 28, 2013 @ 3:48 pm

      • FG
        I have looked up German reports and records, which do mention Rottenführer Andreas Schilling as assistant to Dr Jobst in the infirmary, who would have had the rank of a Corperal and not a doctor, which would clarify an error on part of the original Researcher (who was French) in the spelling of the name as well as the title .

        Comment by Herbert Stolpmann — January 28, 2013 @ 4:37 pm

        • I have found a record of Andreas Schilling being on the staff at Mauthausen, but no record of him being put on trial by the American Military Tribunal in it’s first proceeding against the Mauthausen staff. He might have been put on trial in a subsidiary case, or he might have been put on trial in the Doctor’s trial at Nuremberg which was a proceeding by the Americans.

          Comment by furtherglory — January 29, 2013 @ 11:05 am

  7. Those evil Germans conducted useless medical experiments not only at Mauthausen; Adam Paluch was experimented upon during his 2 years stay at Majdanek, where he arrived when he was 3 years old.

    The 1997 version was less horrible though; his sister told they were spirited from the ghetto and lived with Catholic families.

    Comment by Eager For Answers — January 27, 2013 @ 6:36 pm

    • Binjamin Wilkomirski was also a child prisoner at Majdanek. He wrote a fake survivor book, which is now classified as a novel; his book is taught in American schools. I read his book years ago and immediately called it a fake. I don’t remember whether he said that he was a subject for experiments.

      This quote is from Wikipedia:

      “Binjamin Wilkomirski was a name which Bruno Dössekker (born Bruno Grosjean in 1941) adopted in his constructed identity as a Holocaust survivor and published author. His 1995 fictional memoirs, published in English as Fragments: Memories of a Wartime Childhood, were debunked at the end of the 1990s by a Swiss journalist.”

      Comment by furtherglory — January 28, 2013 @ 10:07 am


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