Scrapbookpages Blog

January 4, 2016

Anne Frank died in Bergen-Belsen extermination camp — who knew?

Filed under: Uncategorized — furtherglory @ 8:20 am

Anne Frank is back in the news because the copyright on her famous book, entitled The Diary of Anne Frank, has run out.

You can read about it in the news article at http://www.haaretz.com/jewish/news/1.695307

The following quote is from the news article:

Frank’s diary, which chronicles two years of hiding from the Nazis in an Amsterdam attic, may be the most famous Holocaust-era document and has inspired several play and film adaptations. Anne died in 1945 at the Bergen-Belsen extermination camp.

End quote

And you thought that Bergen-Belsen was an EXCHANGE camp, where Jews were sent to await an exchange for German prisoners who were being held by the Allies.

I have a section on my website about the Bergen-Belsen camp at http://www.scrapbookpages.com/BergenBelsen/index.html

This section on my website contains articles about the camp: http://www.scrapbookpages.com/BergenBelsen/ConcentrationCamp.html

The following information about Bergen-Belsen is from my website:

Ironically, although 50,000 civilian prisoners and another 50,000 Russian Prisoners of War died at Bergen-Belsen, the US Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, DC does not call it a “death camp.” The term “death camp” is reserved for only six camps, all of them in what is now Poland, where Jews were gassed to death as part of Hitler’s Final Solution to the Jewish Question. According to the USHMM, the six “death camps” were Chelmno, Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, Majdanek and Auschwitz-Birkenau.

When Bergen-Belsen first came into being in April 1943, it was called an Aufenthaltslager, which means a holding camp. Its purpose was to hold prisoners who were suitable for exchange with the Allies for German citizens being held in internment camps in America and Great Britain.

Although Bergen-Belsen was, from the beginning, under the jurisdiction of the camp administration in Oranienburg, near Berlin, it was not until December 2, 1944 that it was designated a concentration camp.

According to a Bergen-Belsen Memorial Site booklet, the Bergen-Belsen exchange camp was not called a civilian internment camp because this would have meant that access had to be allowed by international commissions according to the Geneva convention. That is why the term Aufenthaltslager, which means “camp of staying,” was used instead.

According to Yehuda Bauer, in his book Freikauf von Juden? published in 1994, Hitler authorized the exchange of Jewish prisoners for German citizens, or for ransom money, on December 10, 1942. This was almost a year after the Wannsee Conference, at which the Final Solution was planned on January 20, 1942.

Josef Kramer, the Commandant of Bergen-Belsen was arrested on the day that the camp was turned over to the British

Josef Kramer, the Commandant of Bergen-Belsen, was arrested on the day that the camp was voluntarily turned over to the British

 

 

30 Comments »

  1. Some info saying what I said about Mengele being sheltered by the allies.
    http://www.voltairenet.org/article167692.html

    Comment by jrizoli — January 5, 2016 @ 12:57 pm

    • Read the link to the NY Times. It mentions that Mengele never entered the US.
      It also mentions a posthumous hunt for Mengele.
      Jeff

      Comment by HAD — January 5, 2016 @ 2:43 pm

  2. There were multiple “Death Marches,” not only from Auschwitz-Birkenau.
    I disagree with Wolf that these marches were a part of the Holocaust. My own opinion is that the SS was trying to march every prisoner back to Germany that they could in order to prevent their liberation and use them for forced labor. The article I’ve included states that the Germans hoped to use the prisoners as hostages. The prisoners included not only Jews but Poles, British, US and Soviet POWs, political prisoners, etc.
    What made them “Death Marches” was that many of the marches occurred in the dead of winter with very little food, water, adequate clothing or shelter. Some of the trips included passage by train but the prisoners were shipped in open cars so many of the prisoners froze to death.
    From what I’ve read the prisoners were not given a choice. The “choice” story seems to come from only one source, Elie Wesel. I find this ironic because most deniers state Wesel is a fraud and was never at Birkenau. I’ve never read anything he’s written so I have no opinion on the matter. Naturally if there are any other sources that claim the prisoners were given some sort of choice than I am willing to change my opinion. I also want to say I’ve never read Primo Levy so if he said the prisoners were given a choice them I will have to reevaluate the whole “choice” issue.
    Jeff

    Comment by HAD — January 5, 2016 @ 8:15 am

  3. Bergen-Belsen extermination camp…sounds so 1980’s.

    One cannot request that everybody follows up every thrill of the various convulsions twisting the multi-morphing dying Holohoax…😉

    Comment by hermie — January 5, 2016 @ 6:21 am

  4. In the last months of war every Lager became an “EXTERMINATION CAMP” as the Death Marches too had been a means of extermination. The diffussion of the typhus disease – obvious effect of camp conditions – had been another means of extermination. There had been a sector of Bergen Belsen with the function of EXCHANGE CAMP; the exchanges had been carried out within February 1945 so the whole camp had been only a Lager. Clear?

    Comment by Wolf Murmelstein — January 5, 2016 @ 12:49 am

    • Death Marches too had been a mean of extermination

      Wolf, I often wonder if you realize that some of the things you say are extremely melodramatic and make no sense? Example: why bother to organize a ‘death march’ if you want to “exterminate” some people? Why not just “exterminate” them where they are? And according to you, weren’t the Germans obsessed with secrecy, and therefore with eradicating any trace of their crimes? Then what would they do with the bodies of those who died during a ‘death march’?

      Anyway, a ‘death march’ was apparently not a very effective ‘means of extermination’, since I believe the vast majority of participants survived. Which also attests to the fact that they were in relatively good physical condition at the outset.

      Comment by eah — January 5, 2016 @ 2:28 am

      • I wrote about the “death march” out of the camps on one of my first blog posts: https://furtherglory.wordpress.com/2013/03/28/why-did-the-jews-at-auschwitz-march-out-of-the-camp-with-the-nazis-instead-of-waiting-for-the-soviet-liberators/

        Comment by furtherglory — January 5, 2016 @ 6:30 am

      • eah. A dead march arrived at Theresienstadt at end April 1945 with 500 women; the Female SS guards had no difficulty to admit that the march started with 2000 women. Therefore about 1500 perished during the march time. I think that those marches had been a very effective mean of extermination after the destruction of the Gas Chambers of Auschwitz. This is not melodramatic but very sad. Do You show any human feeling for that tragedy or do regret the arrival of the 500 survivors?

        Comment by Wolf Murmelstein — January 5, 2016 @ 7:02 am

        • Even if the female SS guards did claim that the evacuation column started with 2,000 women and only 500 arrived at Theresienstadt, that doesn’t mean 1,500 of them perished. They could have been left at other camps along the way, or those with skills taken by train to industrial plants where workers were still urgently needed, or simply left behind at a hospital or an SS medical facility because they were not able to continue the march.

          But as eah says, the holocausters are always extremely melodramatic. They always imagine the most cruel and horrific events in order to paint the Germans in general, and the SS in particular, in the worst possible colours.

          Comment by Talbot — January 5, 2016 @ 8:34 am

          • TALBOT. Are You pehaps a lawyer? At that time starting with 2000 and arriving with 500 could not means else than death on the road. For Lager prisoniers on the road medical facilities had not been available. Especially not for jewish prisioniers. You should already have idea about the hatred and the real conditions of that time.

            Comment by Wolf Murmelstein — January 5, 2016 @ 8:43 am

            • TALBOT. Furthermore, officially already in 1938 Jews were banned from Gernan hospitals or similare facilities.

              Comment by Wolf Murmelstein — January 5, 2016 @ 1:42 pm

              • Fair enough, but in the turmoil, chaos and confusion that existed in central Germany during those last few weeks of the war, then all the normal rules and laws undoubtedly disappeared like melting snow in a spring thaw. The female SS guards themselves were probably at their wit’s end to know what to do with their many prisoners, and its quite possible that as the march reached a large town, they simply left those who were too ill or exhausted to carry on, in churches, hospital grounds, or bombed-out buildings – who knows.

                My own father, who was a POW on one of these marches in early April 1945, witnessed the column he was in diminish in size daily, as the number of guards decreased, and the prisoners – either individually, or in small groups – just quietly slipped away to try and make their own way back to Allied lines. He said the remaining German guards actually welcomed prisoners breaking ranks, because they couldn’t cope, and didn’t know what to do or where to go anyway – because no orders or instructions were coming down to them from HQ, because the military situation was rapidly collapsing. In addition to this, the guards were fearful of the Soviet advance, and were thinking more of their own families safety, than they were of guarding prisoners at that late stage of an already lost war.

                Comment by Talbot — January 5, 2016 @ 3:01 pm

                • TALBOT. The actual behaviour of the guards – Wehrmancht or SS? – dependend on their fanastism. Clearly Jewish prisoniers on march had been escorted by SS, much more fanatical in their believe on the FINAL VICTORY and hatred towards Jews.

                  Comment by Wolf Murmelstein — January 6, 2016 @ 12:30 am

                • @Wolf Murmelstein. In those final few weeks of the war, any fanatical SS men left in Nazi Germany were either lying in war graves, held in POW cages, or were fighting desperately on the front line against the Soviet Red Army. But even in Vienna the SS was rebelling against the regime – and didn’t want to fight anymore!

                  But its hardly likely that fanatical SS men and women would be used for escorting POW’s and forced workers from camps in the east back into Germany. That proposition is simply crazy. One has to ask; if these female SS guards were “fanatical” and were so “full of hatred”, then why did they allow 500 of their prisoners to arrive at Theresienstadt unharmed? Why not kill the bulk of them “en-route” and arrive at the ghetto with just a couple of dozen in order to satisfy their superior officers.

                  And you are back on the subject of Commander Rahm and Jewish Elder Murmelstein again. I’ve already tried to explain my position. Both men should be applauded for their actions in ensuring that the Theresienstadt Ghetto remained calm and as unaffected as possible by the chaos, turmoil and confusion during those last few weeks of the war. I don’t need to read any biased or subjective histories or biographies to satisfy myself that these men succeeded in their endeavours – because the proof lies in the fact that the ghetto was handed over to the IRC intact, and with all the inmates unharmed. So, what else needs to be said!

                  Comment by Talbot — January 6, 2016 @ 6:25 am

                • Wolf was a child at Theresienstadt and he must have been scared to death. You never know what those evil Nazis were going to do. They would just as soon kill you as look at you.

                  I was a child in America, the same age as Wolf, and I was afraid that the Japs were coming to kill me. I didn’t know that all the Japanese-Americans had been put into camps in America, so that they could not kill Americans. German-Americans were also put into camps in America. It is hard for people today to imagine how much fear there was, among civilians, during World War II.

                  Comment by furtherglory — January 6, 2016 @ 7:50 am

              • TALBOT. Here and in other comments You credit SS Comanders – Rahm and others – with merits an SS Officer simply could not have otherwise he had been shot by his comrades.
                You ought to know the great merits of the INTERNATION RED CROSS COMITEE and its brave delegates on behalf of the Lager prisoniers, of Swiss Past President Jean Marie MUSY who in September 1944 aproached Himmler and obtained some thing, of Count Folke Bernadotte who cared about Lager prisoniers.
                Due to Nazi fanatism of almost all SS men until the very last days of war prisoniers had been murdered or taken to hidden place in Tyrol montains as hostages where after German surrender even an armed fight between Wehrmacht and SS who refused to leave the hostages free occured.
                Referring to Rahm – a believing Nazi – he eventually “closed an eye” on many things making so possible many efforts of the Elder of Theresienstadt to make the Ghetto fit for the Red Cross Visit. Clearly Rahm had to be cautious as his supervisor watched wanting to replace him thogheter with the Ghetto Elder.
                It had been necessary for the Red Cross Delegate to obtain – May 4, 1945 – the march order to leave at May 5 1945 about 3 p.m. still wearing uniform and weapons.
                After war some silly stories circulated crediting Rahm for alleged merits only in order to defame the last Elder Murmelstein. Kindly let me know what have You read about Rahm and Murmelstein. Best.

                Comment by Wolf Murmelstein — January 6, 2016 @ 2:40 am

              • Fair comment, Further Glory. It is extremely difficult for those of us who were not alive during those terrible years to fully appreciate the fear and uncertainty, especially for young children who didn’t really understand what was going on.

                So, my apologies to Wolf Murmelstein if I’m coming across as rather harsh and argumentative. He must indeed have gone through a harrowing time during those last few weeks of the war. His views of that traumatic period are seen through the prism of his own experiences and impressions.

                Comment by Talbot — January 6, 2016 @ 8:18 am

      • any human feeling for that tragedy

        Wolf, in the past I’ve tried to make it clear that I have plenty of ‘human feeling for the (many human) tragedies’ that played out in WWII — also that I do not wish to downplay the culpability of the Germans for a lot of that suffering — but regarding specific events I want to know what the facts are — what is, or can be, proven.

        the Female SS guards had no difficulty to admit that the march started with 2000 women

        For example, I want to know what proof there is of this.

        Of course I do not regret the survival of anyone.

        Comment by eah — January 5, 2016 @ 7:37 am

    • The death marches were a means of saving the prisoners. The Soviet soldiers were on their way, ready to liberate the prisoners — and rape the women to death, as the German women were raped.

      The prisoners were given a choice of whether to join the march out of the camps with the Germans, or whether to stay and wait for the Soviets to liberate them. (Read Primo Levi’s sad story of how the prisoners suffered, after the Germans had abandoned the camps and there was no one to wait on them hand and foot.)

      There was typhus in all the camps — because the Germans refused to use DDT, which they had already learned was dangerous to man and crops. The American liberators of the camps sprayed the prisoners with DDT, not realizing that it was harmful.

      You are correct that there were various “sectors” at Bergen-Belsen, including an exchange camp where prisoners were held to be exchanged. Very few prisoners were exchanged because the Allies refused to exchange prisoners. Only at the very end had “the whole camp” been only a lager.

      Comment by furtherglory — January 5, 2016 @ 6:01 am

      • FURTHERGLORY. On this subject I have just replied to eah comment. DDT is certainly less dangerous as a typhus desease. I repeat there had been no choice for prisoniers.

        Comment by Wolf Murmelstein — January 5, 2016 @ 7:05 am

      • furtherglory wrote: “the Germans refused to use DDT, which they had already learned was dangerous to man and crops.”

        The Germans didn’t refuse to use DDT. DDT’s insecticidal properties were discovered by Swiss scientist Paul Müller no earlier than in 1939, and the full extent of its extraordinary insecticidal properties was realized no earlier than in 1942. At that point, additional research was still needed to develop an efficient operable means to use it for disinfestation purposes. That was done in America during the year 1943 (DDT powder) and of course kept secret as a major military weapon during the rest of the war.

        Comment by hermie — January 5, 2016 @ 7:42 am

  5. Mengle was brought to Britain and stayed there for several years before moving to South America? Do you have a citation for this information? This 2013 four part study of the Rhinemeadows German POW camp system makes the claim the Alfred Hitchcock (and others in U.S. Army Field Photo teams) used film footage and stills of German Wehrmacht corpses in the film of Bergen Belsen and presented them as Jews in the film he was editing for the OSS/Signal Corps. http://www.hist-chron.com/eu/D/1945-rheinwiesenlager/ENGL/001-basics.html

    Comment by who dares wings — January 4, 2016 @ 9:33 am

    • I just read about Mengele being taken to Britain…now to find where I read it….

      Comment by jrizoli — January 4, 2016 @ 11:22 am

      • Dr. Fritz Klein was taken to Great Britain for trial. As far as I know, Dr. Mengele escaped and was not taken to Great Britain. He escaped to South America.

        Comment by furtherglory — January 5, 2016 @ 6:19 am

  6. Joseph Kramer the head of the camp should of been given a medal for working so hard to save people. The account of what he did was heroic.
    But NOOOOOO lets kill him. For What? Just being a German.
    On a side not….lets take Mengele….he was brought to England stayed there for several years then moved to South America.
    So he lived. Mengele was a headline with many Holocaust Hoax survivors who all met him when they got off the train. Thousands upon thousands of them all met Mengele.
    He was everywhere when you read their testimonies. Thats called being omnipresent….. The most evil man in Germany but he gets to live.
    And why was that? Oh, by the way several thousand camp inmates died when the British took over and ran it but I guess it was not a problem accusing them of mass murder.
    In fact all the bodies you see being bulldozed in mass graves at the end of the war were most likely people that died when the British took over.
    How does that one work for you? I guess it is just a minor point that HoloHoax people want to forget.

    Comment by jrizoli — January 4, 2016 @ 8:51 am


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