August 13th is the anniversary of the day that the wall was built in Berlin in 1961.
The following quote is from a news article which you can read in full at http://www.dw.com/en/what-germany-was-like-when-the-berlin-wall-was-built/a-17708563
“No one has the intention of building a wall,” said Walter Ulbricht, head of the State Council of East Germany, at an international press conference in East Berlin on June 15, 1961. Less than two months later, at dawn on August 13, construction workers began stretching barbed wire across the roads to Berlin’s western sectors. It was a fateful day for the German people. For 28 years, the Berlin Wall would separate the city into east and west.
Berliners were in shock. “A concentration camp barrier” has been stretched through the center of Berlin, said then mayor – and later chancellor – Willy Brandt a few hours later in front of the city’s parliament. The Berlin Wall would remain for exactly 10,315 days, becoming a symbol of the Cold War and dividing the world into two hostile blocs: the capitalist West and the communist East. More than 250 people lost their lives trying to cross the barrier.
Many of the people who fled the East in 1961 were much-needed youth: From the start of the year, every second person who made the move was under 25.
Wirtschaftswunder – an economic miracle
German youth in 1961 were born in the midst of war and destruction, in bombed-out cities or out in the country among billeted soldiers and refugees. Some went hungry as infants; many never got to know their fathers. Their parents would prefer to forget those dark days.