Scrapbookpages Blog

February 3, 2016

What British students learn from the HET tours to Auschwitz

Filed under: Holocaust — Tags: , , , — furtherglory @ 8:59 am
Arbeit macht Frei gate at Auschwitz main camp REUTERS

Arbeit macht Frei gate at Auschwitz main camp
Photo credit: REUTERS

You can read about the latest British HET tour of Auschwitz in this news article:  http://www.eastlothiancourier.com/news/14248333.The_horrors_of_Auschwitz_recounted_by_North_Berwick_High_School_pupil_whose_great__great_gran_died_there/

I have written about the HET tours several times in the past.  I am very critical of this student program because I think that it gives the students the wrong impression of Auschwitz and the Holocaust.

The following quote is from the news article, cited above:

Begin quote

The coldness of the gas chambers, the vast scale of [Auschwitz] Birkenau, the hallway lined with faces of prisoners who died and mounds of hair, shoes and glasses – these are the images which will have a lasting impression upon me.

[…]

One week prior to the visit, we attended the orientation seminar. This was useful as it not only allowed us to get to know the other young people who would be going through the same experience but it addressed our expectations of the camp.

[…]

At the seminar, we were incredibly privileged to have heard from survivor Ziggi Shipper. Ziggi’s story of being separated from his grandparents and imprisoned in Auschwitz to later finding his mother again after the war is truly remarkable.

End quote

I first learned about Ziggi and the hair exhibits at Auschwitz when someone made a comment on one of my very first blog posts:  https://furtherglory.wordpress.com/2012/03/15/hair-today-gone-tommorrow-the-exhibits-at-auschwitz/

The news article about the HET tour ends with this quote:

Begin quote

I now feel ready to do this as part of the Next Steps programme, though, and hope to achieve this through various channels such as assemblies we will be presenting during Holocaust Memorial Week.

‘Arbeit Macht Frei’ – these are the hollow words which confront you as you enter Auschwitz.

‘Work sets you free’ – these are the words which met millions of prisoners, some of whom made this sign, who would never experience freedom again.

End quote

I wrote about the meaning of the Arbeit macht Frei sign on my website at http://www.scrapbookpages.com/DachauScrapbook/KZDachau/Gatehouse.html

“Arbeit macht Frei” does NOT mean “kill the Jews” as some people might think, after reading this news article.

February 1, 2016

The Theresienstadt gas chamber — the story that won’t die

Filed under: Holocaust — Tags: , , , — furtherglory @ 8:43 am
Theresienstadt ghetto were Jews were confined in World War II

An old building in the Theresienstadt ghetto where Jews were confined during World War II

I am taking a comment, made by Wolf Murmelstein, out of the comment section of my blog and making it public in my new blog post today. As I write this, I recall that I previously posted this same comment.  I am posting it again because there are many new readers of my blog, who might like to weigh in on this subject.

The alleged gas chamber at Theresienstadt was located near this spot

The alleged gas chamber at Theresienstadt was located near this gate into the camp

The following article was written in a recent comment made by Wolf Murmelstein, the son of Benjamin Murmelstein, the last Jewish Elder at Theresienstadt:

How the things went on is clearly exposed in my Father’s Book. THERESIENSTADT, EICHMANN’S MUSTERGHETTO which cannot find any USA publisher due to the interests of the Shoah Business as proved by the circulation of this tale.
At any rate, I will summarize the real story:
1. In January, an order came to start works for an adaption of a room in the fort walls and for a wall enclosing a place in the moat surrounding the town but only following oral instructions without any written design.
2. Going on with the work, the engineer alarmed the Elder [Benjamin Murmelstein] who too found it strange as, furthermore, not being called to accompany certain visitors who came to control those works.
3. A group [of prisoners], arriving from Slovakia at  the end of December 1944, had the first alarming information.
4. At a certain moment, the Elder Murmelstein, after having given instructions for the events of his arrest, faced the Commander who spoke about a bombsafe warehouse and a lake for growing ducks. But next day the Commander suddenly left for Prague and returned after three days with the order to stop those works. The only one having authority to give such an order had been SS General and Governor of the Protectorate Karl Hermann Frank.
5. Little Fortress Commander Heinrich Joecke admitted that the Gas Chamber had been aimed for the liquidation o the political prisoners, adding wrongly that Zyklon B had been available. The so called lake in the moat had been aimed as a place for a mass shooting of all Ghetto inmates.

6. Ghetto Commander Karl Rahm in his trial strangely did not show how he had obtained the order to stop the works, holding the version of the Bombsafe Warehouse and the lake for growing ducks, renouncing so as to plea for a prison sentence. One can conjecture that he had been afraid of disclosing the real envolvment of some one able to escape his former “comrades”  who would take revenge on his family at Vienna.
At any rate, things had been made certain in a proper court – Litomerice, Czech Republic – where files can be controlled.
Should such a tale have been put into circulation here in Italy, I would address the State Attorney to investigate whether there had been simple fraud – when asking to buy tickets to follow a speech – or heavy fraud – when sponsored by public pecuniary aid. And in the USA?

I have previously blogged about this in these blog posts:

https://furtherglory.wordpress.com/tag/theresienstadt-gas-chamber

The plan to gas all the Jews at Theresienstadt, or if that wasn’t enough, to drown them

The plan to gas the prisoners at Theresienstadt near the end of World War II

 

January 31, 2016

Jewish girl escaped the gas chamber at Theresienstadt by lying about her age

Filed under: Germany, Holocaust — Tags: , , — furtherglory @ 2:36 pm
The location of the alleged gas chamber at Theresienstadt

The location of the alleged gas chamber at Theresienstadt

According to 84-year-old Holocaust survivor Ruth Kluger, there was a gas chamber at Theresienstadt, but she survived by lying about her age, claiming that she was 15 years old when she was only 12.  http://www.foxnews.com/world/2016/01/27/germanys-jews-mark-holocaust-as-new-threat-rises.html

Of course, as we all know, the Germans were so stupid that they could not tell the difference between a child of 12 and a girl of 15.  Thank God for this, as otherwise there would be no Holocaust survivors alive today.

I have previously written about the alleged gas chamber at Theresienstadt on this blog post:  https://furtherglory.wordpress.com/2010/05/13/gas-chamber-at-theresienstadt/

and on this previous blog post:  https://furtherglory.wordpress.com/2013/05/18/the-plan-to-gas-all-the-jews-at-theresienstadt-or-if-that-wasnt-enough-to-drown-them/

and this previous blog post: https://furtherglory.wordpress.com/2013/05/16/theresienstadt-survivor-says-invasion-by-russian-army-prevented-the-completion-of-the-gas-chambers-there/

So was there a gas chamber at Theresienstadt or not?  According to Wolf Murmelstein, who was a prisoner there when he was a child, there was a indeed a gas chamber at Theresienstadt.

I have written about the alleged gas chamber at Theresienstadt on my website at http://www.scrapbookpages.com/CzechRepublic/Theresienstadt/TheresienstadtGhetto/History/GhettoHistory.html

In my humble opinion, the alleged gas chamber at Theresienstadt was a place where the clothing of the prisoners was disinfected to prevent disease.

The alleged homicidal gas chamber at Theresienstadt was directly across from the Jäger (Hunter) barracks, an identical building on the opposite side of the town, which was used as a disinfection station where the prisoners and their clothing were deloused.

The prisoners were disinfected by being completely submerged in a tub containing a chemical which would kill the lice on their bodies. At the same time, their clothing was disinfected by hot steam, and they would have to put their clothes back on while they were still wet and then return to their barracks.

The oldest inmates of the Theresienstadt ghetto were housed in the Jäger barracks so that they wouldn’t get chilled by walking through the cold in wet clothes. Behind the Jäger barracks was the Südberg or South Hill where a a soccer field had been built for the inmates.

The little boy with his hands up is back in the news…

Filed under: Germany, Holocaust — Tags: , , , — furtherglory @ 8:43 am
This famous photo is being used to illustrate a recent news article

This famous photo is being used to illustrate a recent news article about the Jews killed in the Holocaust

I wrote about the photo above in this previous blog post: https://furtherglory.wordpress.com/2015/06/05/photo-of-the-little-boy-with-his-hands-up-the-rest-of-the-story/

The following quote is from a news article, which uses the photo above:

Begin quote

The soldiers in the First World War knew they might die and were encouraged to write letters to their loved ones, which were only delivered in the event of their death.

Such closure was denied the Jews, cruelly separated on arrival at Auschwitz and sent to the gas chambers thinking they were merely having a shower.

Thousands, like my grandfather Armin Klein, were picked up away from their loved ones with no opportunity to express their feelings or say goodbye – their families were left wondering what had happened.
I want people to understand what the Holocaust was really like and I hope I have achieved that. The ripples created by the Holocaust pebble in the world’s pond still undulate. They probably always will, while Yad Vashem receives 4,000 books on the Holocaust each year.

The betrayal of the Jews by the Nazis was so severe that a whole raft of international law came into force after 1945. However, the occurrence of the Holocaust does not mean that appropriate international law did not exist.

The pre-1945 international laws were perfectly adequate to protect everyone from the horrors of the Holocaust – the Nazis just chose to ignore them, as subsequent genocides have ignored the new legislation.

The Jews were told complete and deliberate lies about their future and destinations, what they could take with them, what would happen to them and their families.

End quote

But it gets worse.  The article continues with the story of what happened at Treblinka:

Begin quote

Even at the very end, when they were told they were going for a shower – in Treblinka, the gas chambers were disguised as traditional Jewish bathhouses with roof tiles made by a manufacturer whose trademark was identical to the Star of David, apparently called a ‘Molette d’eperon’.

The forensic archaeologist who worked at Treblinka told me: “I did find multiple tiles like this at Treblinka, some still cemented to foundations.” The star is not actually the star of David, as it turns out, but rather an emblem of a Polish tile manufacturer. Without a doubt, though, the Nazis modelled the gas chamber on a Jewish bathhouse and these same tiles can be found in other Jewish bathhouses throughout Poland.

I consider the lies that were told to Jews throughout their persecution to be an overwhelming betrayal.

The failure to tell people they were about to be killed is unforgiveable because the Jews were entitled to know their lives were about to be ended so they could prepare themselves and, where possible, say their goodbyes.

End quote

It is hard to believe how cruel the Nazis were, not even allowing the Jews to write a final letter before they were killed.  I wrote about Treblinka on my website at http://www.scrapbookpages.com/Poland/Treblinka/introduction.html

 

January 30, 2016

The difference between a gas chamber and a shower room

Filed under: Dachau, Germany, Holocaust — furtherglory @ 11:53 am

ab1b3486b29d00b359360b51e2eba886

The photo above shows a shower room at Dachau. This is NOT a gas chamber, as claimed by several people who have put this photo on Pinterest.

My photo of the alleged gas chamber at Dachau

My photo of the alleged gas chamber at Dachau

Every morning, I check the statistics for my blog, in order to see how people are being directed here. Many people are being directed to my blog from Pinterest, especially from the photo of a shower room at Dachau.

The gas chamber at Dachau was in a shower room, but NOT the shower room that is shown in the first photo. I have a section on my website which explains the gas chamber in one of the shower rooms at Dachau: http://www.scrapbookpages.com/DachauScrapbook/GasChamber/Index.html

You can read more, about the gas chamber at Dachau, on my website at http://www.scrapbookpages.com/DachauScrapbook/GasChamber/history01.html

January 28, 2016

Edith Eger is still out telling her sad Holocaust story to American students

Filed under: Germany, Holocaust — Tags: , , — furtherglory @ 12:38 pm
Holocaust Survivor who is still out speaking to American students

Holocaust Survivor who is still out speaking to American students

I previously blogged about Edith Eger on these two blog posts:

Holocaust survivor turned cartwheels at Auschwitz

The “Ballerina of Auschwitz” is still alive and still kicking

Now Edith Eger is back in the news:

http://www.latimes.com/socal/daily-pilot/news/tn-dpt-me-0128-holocaust-survivor-20160127-story.html

The following quote is from the news article, cited above:

Auschwitz was liberated by Soviet forces on Jan. 27, 1945. Having survived disease and slave labor in the camp, [Edith] Eger immigrated to the United States in 1949.

She became a clinical psychologist specializing in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. She now lives in La Jolla [California].

Eger also is a great-grandmother to three boys whom she calls her greatest pride and joy.

“I was always told [in Auschwitz] that the only way I was going to get out was as a corpse,” Eger said. “I knew that on any day I could be beaten or sent to the gas chamber. But I knew no matter what, they could never murder my spirit.”

Another date, known as Yom Hashoah at the beginning of May, also is dedicated within the Jewish community to remembering the Holocaust, Keller said.
Copyright © 2016, Daily Pilot

End quote
I marvel at how Holocaust Survivors are able to carry on, visiting colleges to educate young people about the greatest crime in the world — the Holocaust.  I often wonder why these people are so healthy and hearty in their old age.

 

January 27, 2016

More misuse of Holocaust photos

Filed under: Germany, Holocaust — Tags: , , — furtherglory @ 7:47 pm
My photo of the gate into the Sachsenhausen camp

My photo of the gate into the Sachsenhausen concentration camp in Germany

 

People are reflected in a puddle as they walk through the gate of the Sachsenhausen Nazi death camp with the phrase 'Arbeit macht frei' (work sets you free) at the International Holocaust Remembrance Day, in Oranienburg, about 18 miles north of Berlin, on Jan. 27, 2016. (Markus Schreiber / AP)

People are reflected in a puddle as they walk through the gate of the Sachsenhausen Nazi death camp with the phrase ‘Arbeit macht frei’ (work sets you free) at the International Holocaust Remembrance Day, in Oranienburg, about 18 miles north of Berlin, on Jan. 27, 2016. (Markus Schreiber / AP)

Sachsenhausen was NOT a “Nazi death camp” This slogan was never put on the so-called “death camps”.

The following quote is from the news article:

This year’s commemorations come as a resurgence of anti-Semitism casts a shadow over a new generation of European Jews, something that is driving thousands of them each year to leave the continent.

“We must be honest enough to admit that more than 70 years after the Shoah, anti-Semitism is still alive in our ‘civilized’ European Union,” Federica Mogherini, the European Union’s top foreign affairs representative, said in a statement.

Jewish immigration to Israel from Western Europe grew last year due to a rise in anti-Semitic attacks. Most — nearly 8,000 — were from France, where Islamic extremist attacks have destroyed the sense of security previously felt by Europe’s largest Jewish population.

Why is it that no country wants the Jews? The Jews have never done anyone any harm, yet they have been driven out of almost every country in the world, except the USA.

This quote is also from the same news article:

In Berlin, the German Parliament gathered to remember the victims of the Holocaust and heard Ruth Klueger, an Austrian-born writer who survived Auschwitz and other camps, tell of her experience as a camp inmate and slave laborer.

Klueger, now 84, also recalled the initial denial of Nazi crimes in post-war Germany and contrasted that with the country now.

“Two or even three generations have grown up here since then and this country, which was responsible 80 years ago for the worst crimes of the century, has today won the applause of the world thanks to its open borders and the generosity with which it has taken in Syrian and other refugees, and still is,” Klueger said.

So now the Jews approve of Germany, since the country has been ruined by Syrian refugees.  Germany is not Germany any more. Hitler would be turning over in his grave — if he had a grave.

Can a person get Schizophrenia from being in a concentration camp as a child?

Filed under: Health, Holocaust — Tags: — furtherglory @ 1:50 pm

Today I read a news article at http://www.timesofisrael.com/holocaust-toddlers-nearly-twice-as-likely-to-develop-schizophrenia/

The news article, cited above, claims the following:

“Holocaust toddlers nearly twice as likely to develop schizophrenia”

This quote is from the start of the article:

While Holocaust survivors in general are 27% more likely to develop the disability than their non-survivor peers, those who were in their mothers’ wombs during World War ll and experienced Holocaust horrors after the age of two were 41% more likely to exhibit the disorder.

I looked up this subject and found this information online:

Heredity and the Genetics of Schizophrenia

Family statistics
As can be seen from the graph below schizophrenia definitely has a very significant genetic component. Those who have a third degree relative with schizophrenia are twice as likely to develop schizophrenia as those in the general population. Those with a second degree relative have a several-fold higher incidence of schizophrenia than the general population, and first degree relatives have an incidence of schizophrenia an order of magnitude higher than the general populace. Following are two images that summarize the average risks for developing schizophrenia for different groups of people. (The statistics in the two images vary slightly due to inclusion of different study data).

schizophrenia.risks

So it seems that Jews have a high risk of inheriting mental diseases. Who knew?

 

January 21, 2016

Just what we need …. another book about the liberation of Dachau

Cover of new book about the liberation of Dachau

The photo above shows the cover of a new book about Dachau. In the photo, American soldiers are examining dead bodies that they had found on a train that was parked on a railroad track just outside the Dachau concentration camp.  These American soldiers assumed that the bodies were the bodies of Jews that had been shot by the evil Nazis.

Actually, these bodies were the bodies of Jews that had been killed when American planes had strafed this train just before it reached the Dachau camp. The prisoners were being taken to Dachau in order to turn them over to the American liberators, who were on their way. You can read all about the “death train” on my website at http://www.scrapbookpages.com/DachauScrapbook/DachauLiberation/DeathTrain.html

In my humble opinion, I don’t think that this is a suitable photo to use on the cover of a book about Dachau. I would have used the photo below for a cover of a book about the American liberation of Dachau; the photo shows an SS man surrendering the Dachau camp to the Americans.

SS 2nd Lt. Heinrich Wicker surrenders Dachau camp to Brig. Gen. Henning Linden

SS 2nd Lt. Heinrich Wicker surrenders Dachau camp to Brig. Gen. Henning Linden

The photo below would also be appropriate for a book about the liberation of Dachau. This photo shows Dachau prisoners celebrating after killing some of the guards in the camp. The American liberators allowed, and even even encouraged this, by joining in the killing.

Dachau priosoners celebrate after killing SS men at Dachau

Dachau priosoners celebrate after killing SS men at Dachau

The main Dachau camp was surrendered, on April 29, 1945, to Brigadier General Henning Linden of the 42nd Rainbow Division, by SS 2nd Lt. Heinrich Wicker, who is the second man from the right in the first photo above. Wicker was accompanied by Red Cross representative Victor Maurer who had just arrived the day before with five trucks loaded with food packages. In the first photo above, the arrow points to Marguerite Higgins, one of the reporters, who was covering the war.

The surrender of the Dachau camp took place near a gate into the SS garrison that was right next to the prison enclosure.

The following quote is at the very end of the news article:

Anyone found guilty of denying the Holocaust should be locked up for a year with nothing to read but this book.

Actually, the news article, which you can read in full here starts with the following quote:

Begin quote

“Hell Before Their Very Eyes” is John McManus‘ third book about World War II. The Curators’ Professor of History at the Missouri University of Science and Technology, Mr. McManus writes that he chose this topic because, having written often about combat, he was “struck by the frequency with which combat veterans ventured the opinion that the most unforgettable, and sometimes traumatic, aspect of their wartime service was the experience of liberating or witnessing a concentration camp.”

Historians estimate that there were as many as 20,000 camps of several different types, but Mr. McManus has chosen to focus on the liberation of just three camps — Ohrdruf, Buchenwald and Dachau, which were liberated in that order in April, 1945. Although the American troops knew of the camps’ existence, none of them were prepared for what they found. “These men discovered,” Mr. McManus writes, ” the very depths of human-imposed cruelty and depravity . For the Americans who witnessed such powerful evidence of Nazi crimes, the experience was life altering. Most reacted with anger, revulsion and abject disgust … . Almost all were haunted for the rest of their lives by what they had seen.”

[…]

Obviously, this is not a book for the squeamish, so it’s important to note that the author presents the gruesome material, of which there is a great deal, with both care and compassion. For example, he spends several pages on the discovery of the “Dachau death train,” 39 boxcars filled with prisoners’ corpses. Of all the horrific sights seen by the G.I.s who liberated the various camps, this one in particular would haunt many of them for life.

[…]

Eisenhower also encouraged journalists to visit the camps. One reporter who quickly accepted Ike’s invitation was Marguerite Higgins of the New York Herald-Tribune. Mr. McManus writes that, initially, when questioning survivors, “Her tone was distrustful and brusque” but after having been shown around the camp, and seeing “the ovens and the stacks of bodies, she softened considerably. (Later in life she would feel great shame at her initial insensitivity.)”

End quote

Marguerite Higgins did not “accept Eisenhower’s invitation to visit the camps.”  She was a reporter who was a war correspondent; she was following the troops. She was at Dachau on the day when the camp was surrendered to the American troops.

After Dachau was surrendered, the American liberators proceeded to kill SS men in the camp, who had surredered. You can read about the “Dachau massacre” on my website at http://www.scrapbookpages.com/DachauScrapbook/DachauLiberation/SoldiersKilled.html

 

January 17, 2016

Hannah Arendt is the subject of a new book

Hannah Arendt

Hannah Arendt is famous for coining the expression “Banality of Evil.”

I previously blogged about Hannah Arendt at https://furtherglory.wordpress.com/2015/09/15/hannah-arendt-and-her-opinion-about-the-role-of-the-jewish-leaders-in-the-holocaust/

and on this previous blog post:  https://furtherglory.wordpress.com/2010/11/24/anton-schmidt-two-minutes-of-silence-in-his-honor-at-eichmanns-trial/

Hannah Arendt is back in the news in a news article headlined:

Hannah Arendt’s angst was born in the US, says author

Don’t ever tell anyone that you have never heard of Hannah Arendt or that you don’t know the meaning of the expression that she invented: “Banality of Evil.” This will immediately mark you as a person who has never been to college, at least not in America, where the writing of Hannah Arendt is taught in many different classrooms.

The German word “angst” has a different meaning in America.  In Germany, one might say “Ich habe Angst gegen der Hundt.” In America, the word “angst” is used to show that you are sophisticated and educated, not that you are afraid. It is hard to define the word, as it is used in America.

The following quote is from the article, cited above:

Begin quote
In his latest book, “Arendt And America,” King argues that living in the United States allowed the German philosopher [Hanna Arendt] to think far beyond the simple dichotomies of political divisions — such as left and right — that led to the endless slaughter and complete break down of the European social order, before and during World War II.

In Arendt’s interpretation of Nazi history, Adolf Eichmann did not display any original thoughts of his own. It was this sheer banality of existence, she claimed, that allowed him to become the chief orchestrator and faceless bureaucrat of the Final Solution, one of the most horrific systematic mass murders ever known to mankind.

But what perhaps caused the most controversy among Jews was Arendt’s criticism of the Nazi-appointed “Jewish Councils” (Judenräte ). She contended that they became a sinister Nazi method to eliminate a maximum number of Jews with a minimum amount of administrative effort and cost. Or, to put it more bluntly: a system that ensured certain Jews would be made responsible for the organization of transport to their fellow Jews, as they made their way to the gas chambers.

End quote

At his trial Eichmann was put into a cage with bullet proof glass

At his trial Eichmann was put into a cage made with bullet proof glass

Why was Eichmann put into a glass cage at his trial? Supposedly, it was because he was so evil that someone might shoot him before his trial was over.

I wrote the following about Eichmann on my scrapbookpages.com website:  http://www.scrapbookpages.com/AuschwitzScrapbook/History/Articles/HungarianJews2.html

The following information is from the book “Auschwitz, a New History” by Laurence Reese:

On April 25, 1944, in his office at the Hotel Majestic in Budapest, Eichmann met with Joel Brand, another leading member of the Jewish Relief and Rescue Committee. Brand had already attended previous meetings with Eichmann and other SS officers in an attempt to bribe them to allow a number of Jews out of Hungary. Now Eichmann said to Brand, “I am prepared to sell one million Jews to you.”

Eichmann proposed an exchange of “Blood for Goods,” in which the British and the Americans would give the Nazis one new truck for every one hundred Jews. Eichmann promised that the trucks would only be used on the Eastern front where the Germans were fighting against the Communist Soviet Union. Brand was asked to go to Istanbul in Turkey to negotiate the deal. Eichmann hoped to obtain 10,000 trucks in exchange for one million Jews. But even before Brand reached Turkey on May 19, 1944, Eichmann had already ordered the deportation of the Hungarian Jews, which began on April 29, 1944.

According to Laurence Rees, SS officer Kurt Becher, who was a Lt. Col., equal in rank to Eichmann, was trying to blackmail the Weiss family, owners of the biggest industrial conglomerate in Hungary, into giving its shares to the SS in return for safe passage out of the country.

Rees wrote:

By the time of his meeting with Brand, Eichmann knew that his rival Becher had successfully arranged for shares of the Manfred-Weiss works to be transferred to the Nazis; in return, about fifty members of the Weiss family were allowed to leave and head for neutral countries.

Brand was accompanied to Istanbul by another man named Bandi Grosz, a former agent of the Abwehr, the German intelligence agency, whose operations in Hungary had been taken over by an SS officer, Lt. Col. Gerhard Clages. At the last meeting with Brand, SS officers Clages, Becher and several other Nazis had been present.

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