Gate into the former Theresienstadt ghetto
The wall around Theresienstadt fort, the site of the ghetto where Jews were imprisoned
Today I read a news story at http://www.newspostleader.co.uk/news/local/holocaust-horrors-brought-to-life-for-students-1-7907002#ixzz48f2Zrchi
The following quote is from the news article, cited above:
History students at Blyth’s Bede Academy heard the first hand account from Joanna Millan, a grandmother who spent two years in a concentration camp at Theresianstadt, [Theresienstadt] near Prague.
Less than 100 children out of 15,000 deported there survived, with Joanna just three-years-old when she came to England in August, 1945.
Several years ago, I visited the Theresienstadt ghetto on two separate days. I took a tour bus there and walked around the former camp, which is still a town in the Czech Republic, where non-Jews now live.
After my extensive visit, I wrote the following about Theresienstadt on my website:
The total number of Jews transported from their homes to the Theresienstadt ghetto, from the day that it opened on November 24, 1941 until April 20, 1945, was 139,654, according to a 1991 book called “The Terezin Ghetto” by Ludmila Chladkova, which I purchased from the Theresienstadt Museum. Out of the total who were originally deported to Theresienstadt, there were 33,430 persons who died in the ghetto. There were 207 babies born in the camp, despite the fact that the men and women were housed in separate barracks.
There were also 13,454 persons who arrived at the ghetto after April 20, after being evacuated by the Nazis from other concentration camps that had to be closed before the Soviet Army arrived.
In the first week of May 1945, the Nazis turned the camp over to the Red Cross, and the SS staff left the camp on May 5, 1945. At that time, there were 16,832 of the original 139,654 who had been deported to Theresienstadt that were still alive and living in the ghetto. The book by Ludmila Chladkova, which is sold at the Theresienstadt Museum, has no explanation for the discrepancy between this number of 16,832 and the number of survivors which her book says was 17,472.
About half of these 16,832 prisoners, or 8,565 persons, had arrived in Theresienstadt after October 28, 1944, so they had been in the ghetto for only seven months or less. The last transport out of the ghetto left on October 28, 1944.
The majority of the Jews sent directly to Theresienstadt were from the German protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia which is now the Czech Republic and from Slovakia which became an independent country when Czechoslovakia ceased to exist in 1939. There were 75,666 Czech and Slovak Jews sent to Theresienstadt and 8,542 of them were still alive in the ghetto when the Red Cross took over in the first week of May, 1945. From Germany, there were 42,104 Jews transported to Theresienstadt, and 5,221 were still alive in the ghetto on May 9, 1945. There were 15,253 Austrian Jews, most of them over 60 years old, who were sent to the ghetto but only 1,293 of them were still there on May 9, 1945. The total number of Jews deported to Theresienstadt from the Netherlands was 4,897, out of which 1,285 were still alive in the camp on May 9, 1945.
The deportation of the Hungarian Jews did not begin until the end of April 1944 and 1,150 of them were sent to Theresienstadt. Because of the short length of their stay in the ghetto, there were 1,138 still there on May 9, 1945.
There were 117 Jews sent to Theresienstadt from Gdansk, which was the former German port city of Danzig that was made into an international port under the control of Poland after World War I, and 11 of them were still there at the end.
According to the book “The Terezin Ghetto” by Ludmila Chladkova, the 466 Danish Jews who were sent to Theresienstadt were all sent back to Denmark by the Nazis on April 15, 1945, shortly before the ghetto was handed over to the Red Cross. Other sources give the number of Danish Jews sent to Theresienstadt as 481, 475, 456 and 464. No two web sites or books agree on the number of Danish Jews sent to Theresienstadt or the number who returned to Denmark. Other sources give various numbers for the Danish Jews who died at Theresienstadt: 31, 43, 51, 52, 53, 58 and 116.
Not counting the Danish Jews, there were 17,472 survivors of the 139,654 Jews originally sent to the ghetto who were still there when the Russian army arrived on May 8, 1945, according to Ludmila Chladkova.
Out of the 139,654 Jews who were originally deported to Theresienstadt, 86,934 were subsequently transported to the east to various concentration camps, not counting the 1,260 children from Bialystok in eastern Poland.
According to Martin Gilbert in his book “Holocaust Journey,” the Bialystok children were survivors from the Bialystok ghetto. They arrived in Theresienstadt on August 24, 1943 and on October 5, 1943 they were sent out of the camp, along with 53 volunteer doctors, nurses and attendants. According to Gilbert, the Nazis claimed that these children were going to be exchanged in neutral Switzerland for German POWs held by the Allies, but instead “they were taken to Auschwitz and murdered.” These children were not counted in the official Nazi records of those who were transported to the east.
In addition, there were 1,623 Jews from Theresienstadt who were sent, before the end of the war, to the neutral countries of Switzerland and Sweden with the help of the Red Cross. Out of the 86,934 Jews who were sent farther east, there were 3,097 who returned to their home countries.
There were 701 Jews who managed to escape from Theresienstadt and 336 others who violated the rules of the ghetto and consequently were sent to the Gestapo prison in the Small Fortress across the river. Those who served their time in the Small Fortress, and survived, were later sent to concentration camps in the east.
When the concentration camps in the East closed, because the Russians were advancing into Poland during the last months of the war, all the inmates who could walk were marched to Germany and crowded into the camps there. This caused a disaster in Germany because they brought the typhus epidemic with them from Poland. In the last three weeks of the war, there were 13,454 prisoners from the concentration camps in the east who were admitted into the Theresienstadt ghetto, and the typhus epidemic spread to Theresienstadt.
According to the Ghetto Museum, a total of 34,396 prisoners died in Ghetto Theresienstadt including 966 who had just arrived from the camps in the east after April 20, 1945. When the war ended on May 8, 1945, the total number of people in the ghetto was 29,320 which included the survivors from the eastern camps who had arrived in the last weeks of the war and the 16,832 survivors of the original transports.
End of information from my website
O.K. it is time to go to Wikipedia, the website that knows all: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theresienstadt_concentration_camp
Wikipedia is strictly a kosher website, where no Holocaust denial is allowed.
Begin quote from Wikipedia:
Approximately 144,000 Jews were sent to Theresienstadt. Most inmates were Czech Jews, but 40,000 were from Germany, 15,000 from Austria, 5,000 from the Netherlands, and 300 from Luxembourg. In addition to the group of approximately 500 Jews from Denmark, Slovak and Hungarian Jews were deported to the ghetto. 1,600 Jewish children from Białystok, Poland, were deported from Theresienstadt to Auschwitz; none survived. About a quarter of the inmates (33,000) died in Theresienstadt, mostly because of the deadly conditions, which included hunger, stress, and disease. The typhus epidemic at the very end of war took an especially heavy toll.
About 88,000 prisoners were deported to Auschwitz and other extermination camps, including Treblinka. At the end of the war, 17,247 had survived. An estimated 15,000 children lived in the ghetto. Willy Groag, one of the youth care workers, mistakenly claimed after the war that only 93 survived. However, 242 children younger than 15 survived deportation to camps in the East, and 1,566 children survived in the ghetto proper.
I wrote about the Bialystok children on my blog at: https://furtherglory.wordpress.com/2011/03/26/the-fate-of-the-bialystok-ghetto-children-who-were-sent-to-theresienstadt/