Scrapbookpages Blog

September 28, 2016

Donald Trump, Jr. made a “gas chamber” remark and all hell broke loose

Filed under: Holocaust, Uncategorized — furtherglory @ 1:04 pm

By now, everyone in the world is talking about Junior’s gas chamber remark.

Donald Trump, Jr. has tried to deny that he was referring to the Holocaust when he said, ” “I mean, if Republicans were doing that, they’d be warming up the gas chamber right now.”

How do you “warm up” a gas chamber? It is the Zyklon-B gas that has to be warmed up in order to release the poison fumes. Junior revealed his ignorance when he made this remark.

A real gas chamber in Jefferson City, MO

A real gas chamber in Jefferson City, Missouri

The newspaper story continues with this quote:

Begin quote

Trump Jr. also said that as a Republican running as an outsider, “every day, everyone’s throwing everything they could possibly throw at him.”

Gas chambers were used by Nazis in the Holocaust — the genocide of 6 million Jews and millions of others during World War II.

Trump’s campaign denied that Trump Jr. was referring to the Holocaust, saying he meant the “gas chamber” used in capital punishment.

“The liberal, dishonest media is so quick to attack one of the Trumps that they never let the truth get in the way of a good smear,” Trump senior communications adviser Jason Miller said in an emailed statement. “Don Jr. was clearly referring to capital punishment to make the case that the media continues to take words out of context in order to serve as the propaganda arm of the Hillary Clinton campaign — something that’s only gotten worse as Trump’s poll numbers have improved.”

End quote

In my humble opinion, I think that Junior should get off the campaign trail before he does any more harm.



September 27, 2016

Hillary wore red, Trump wore a grey wig and a sour expression

Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: , , , — furtherglory @ 9:38 am

At last night’s debate, Hillary looked like a 30-year-old very attractive woman; Trump looked angry as usual.

The morning after the debate, Trump went on the attack, as reported by the New York Times:

Hillary held her head up high and looked at the camera; Donald looked at her, the entire time, with a scowl on his face. During the debate, he spoke to her. She looked into the camera and spoke to the audience of 100 million people world wide. She conducted herself as if she were the Queen of a country. Trump sipped water throughout the debate, while Hillary only took one sip of water. Having “dry mouth” is a serious sign of ill health; Trump should see his doctor. [Dry mouth is a symptom of failing kidneys.]

Hillary’s best line was this: “A man who can be provoked by a tweet should not have his fingers anywhere near the nuclear codes.”

Hillary was at the top of her game; Trump interrupted her 51 times. She interrupted him 17 times.

The subject of the famous e-mails on Hillary’s private e-mail server came up; Trump said that he would release his tax returns as soon as Hillary reveals the 33,000 e-mails on her private server. So – never! Hillary’s e-mails are gone — wiped clean from her private server.

I used to have a private e-mail server; the advantage of having your own e-mail server is that you can see where the e-mails are coming from, not  where they are claiming to be coming from.  It is not a crime to have a private e-mail server, and you are not required, by law, to save 33,000 e-mails until the end of time.

Over 100 million people world wide watched the debate; 62% of the people in the world wide audience said that Hillary won the debate, while only 27% thought that Trump was the winner. Six percent of the viewers thought that the debate ended in a draw.

Trump claims that his “strongest asset” is his temperment. Hillary’s strongest assets are that she has had 30 years of government experience and she has traveled the world.

During the debate, Hillary brought up the subject of Trump not paying his architect, Andrew Tesoro, his fee of $100,000 dollars for a job that he did. Trump defended this by saying that Tesoro had not done a good job, and that is why he didn’t pay him.

Trump pointed out that he had made 68 million dollars in one year, and that he has been audited by the government every year for 10 years.

I was audited the first year that I went into business, and I passed. My accountant told me that I would never be audited again because I passed the audit the first time. Trump was apparently audited every year for 10 years because his tax returns were suspicious.

After the debate, Trump bragged about the fact that he had not mentioned Hillary’s husband. Hillary never mentioned Trump’s wife, nor his two previous wives who left him.  Trump said that he did not mention Hillary’s husband because their daughter Chelsea was in the audience.

The subject of Obama’s birth certificate came up; Trump said that Obama was born in America. Is Kenya in America? That’s where Obama was born.

September 26, 2016

The failed Jewish plot to kill Nazis

Filed under: Germany, World War II — furtherglory @ 10:29 am


Sinwell tower in Nuremberg is shown in my photo above

A Jewish plot to kill Nazis is back in the news. You can read about it at

This quote is from the news article:

Begin quote

Seventy years after the most daring attempt of Jewish Holocaust survivors to seek revenge, the leader of the plot has only one simple regret – that to his knowledge he didn’t actually kill any Nazis.

Joseph Harmatz is one of the few remaining Jewish “Avengers” who carried out a mass poisoning of former SS men in an American-run prisoner-of-war camp in 1946 that sickened more than 2,200 Germans but ultimately caused no known deaths. A recently declassified US military report obtained by the Associated Press has only added to the mystery of why the brazen operation did not kill Nazis, because it shows the amount of arsenic used should have been fatal to tens of thousands.


The mission was simple.

“Kill Germans,” Harmatz said flatly.

How many?

“As many as possible,” he quickly replied.

The first idea described by Harmatz was initiated by the resistance fighter and poet Abba Kovner: to poison the water supply of Nuremberg. But there were deep reservations even among the Avengers that such an operation would bring mass death to innocent Germans and undermine international support for the eventual creation of the state of Israel. Either way, when Kovner sailed for Europe with the poison, he drew suspicion from British authorities and was forced to toss it overboard.

So attention shifted toward Plan B, a more limited operation that specifically targeted the worst Nazi perpetrators.


Undercover members of the group found work at a bakery that supplied the Stalag 13 POW camp at Langwasser, near Nuremberg. On 13 April 1946, using poison procured from one of Kovner’s associates, three members spent two hours coating some 3,000 loaves of bread with arsenic. The goal was to kill 12,000 SS personnel, and Harmatz oversaw the operation from outside the bakery.

“The terrible tragedy was about to be forgotten, and if you don’t punish for one crime, you will get another,” explained Dina Porat, the chief historian at Israel’s Yad Vashem memorial, who is about to publish a book on the Avengers. “This is what was driving them, not only justice but a warning, a warning to the world that you cannot hurt Jews in such a manner and get away with it.”

Under German regulations, authorities in Nuremberg later investigated Harmatz and Leipke Distal, who worked undercover in the bakery for months, after they revealed details of the operation in a 1999 television documentary. The prosecutors eventually concluded that even though there was an attempted murder they would not file charges because of the “extraordinary circumstances”.

End quote

Nuremberg church that was bombed in World War II

Nuremberg church that was bombed in World War II

I was very interested in this story because, when I lived in Germany for 20 months after World War II, the house where I lived was 9 miles from Nuremberg. I used to walk the 9 miles, and back, very frequently.

I took photos of Nuremberg and put them on my website at

While I was living in Germany, I learned how to pronounce the word Nürnberg correctly, but don’t worry: if you mispronounce the word, the Germans are too polite to correct you.



September 25, 2016

The Labor camp and the Death camp at Treblinka

Filed under: Holocaust, World War II — furtherglory @ 6:18 pm


The original sign at the Treblinka camp is shown in the photo above.

My photo of the location of the train station

My 1998 photo of the location of the train station at Treblinka

The Treblinka camp for Jews, during World War II, was divided into three sections. On the far left of the train platform where the Jews arrived [shown in the photo above] was the section where the guards and administrators lived.

The 1,000 Jews who worked at Treblinka lived in Camp 1 near the SS barrack where the Nazi guards lived. Today, only the area where the Jews were allegedly gassed and burned, has been preserved; the rest of the camp is now covered with trees. The whole camp covered about 22 acres but today’s visitors see an area that is only about 7 acres in size.

Stone with a map showing the direction to the labor camp and the death camp

My 1998 photo shows a stone with a map showing which way to the Treblinka labor camp and the way to the death camp

The photograph above shows a large memorial stone at the beginning of the cobblestone path which leads up to the site of the former Nazi death camp at Treblinka.

On the stone is a map showing a gravel pit in the center with the Treblinka labor camp to the left and the extermination camp to the right. On a real map, the gravel pit and the former labor camp are located to the south of the extermination camp.

The labor camp was in existence for about a year before the death camp was established at Treblinka. The labor camp was located about a mile from the death camp. When I visited the site of the camp in 1998, there was a group of students who were going to see the site of the labor camp. I was told by my tour guide that there was nothing to see there, so I did not join the tour.

Each of the six stones at the alleged death camp is inscribed with a different language including Hebrew, English and Polish. The inscription in English says that the camp was in operation from July 1942 to August 1943 and that during those 13 months, 800,000 Jews were killed there.

The inscription also mentions the Aug. 2, 1943 uprising, calling it the “armed revolt which was crashed [crushed] in blood by the Nazi hangmen.”

This gate into the camp was built for tourists after the war

My 1988 photo of the stone gate into Treblinka that was built for tourists

My photo above shows two stones placed at an angle to form a gate into the former Treblinka death camp. In the foreground, there are 6 memorial stones, set close together. [You can only see one of the stones in the photo.]

Each of the six stones is inscribed with a different language including Hebrew, English and Polish. The inscriptions say that the camp was in operation from July 1942 to August 1943 and that during those 13 months, 800,000 Jews were killed there.

It was this uprising, along with those at Sobibor and in the Warsaw ghetto, which allegedly motivated the Nazis to execute all the Jews at the Trawniki forced labor camp near Lublin, and all the Jews at the Poniatowa camp, in November 1943.

You can read more about Treblinka on my website at

and at



Treblinka memorial site is in today’s news

Filed under: Germany, Holocaust — Tags: , , , , — furtherglory @ 11:24 am

The first place that I visited, when I started traveling to Holocaust sites in 1998, was Treblinka, a camp in Poland where it is claimed, by Holocaust True Believers, that millions of Jews were killed. Holocaust deniers claim that Treblinka was a transit camp. I believe that it was a transit camp, but what do I know?

My 1998 photo of the huge monument at Treblinka

My 1998 photo of a huge monument at Treblinka

The huge monument at Treblinka, shown in the photo above, is located on the spot where the Jews were allegedly killed. No one is allowed to dig anywhere near this monument to prove, or disprove, that bodies were buried there.

You can read a news story about a trip to Holocaust sites in Poland, taken recently by Pam Kancher, on this website:

Begin quote

This past July, the Holocaust Center sponsored its first Jewish Heritage Tour to Poland and Prague. Thirty people joined me [Pam Karcher] on an emotional 10-day journey of reflection and remembrance. At our recent reunion we each shared a memory that stood out from all the rest. By far the most meaningful experience I had was visiting the Treblinka memorial.

Treblinka was the site of the Nazis’ second-largest extermination camp after Auschwitz-Birkenau. It is estimated that from July 1942 through November 1943 between 870,000 and 925,000 Jews were killed there-on average 2,000 men, women and children were gassed each day and their bodies burnt on huge, open-air cremation pyres.

Treblinka was not a work camp. It was built as a death camp. Jews were deported there from the Warsaw Ghetto as well as from other areas of Central Poland, primarily Warsaw, Radom and Krakow. Following an uprising by the prisoners in August 1943, the extermination camp was demolished and abandoned.

[The most important part of the news article is this quote:]

The Treblinka Museum of Struggle and Martyrdom, dedicated in 1964, was built in the shadow of the gas chambers, the original buildings having long ago been plowed and planted over. The only thing left were the ashes and memories. The outdoor museum is a symbolic Jewish cemetery made of 17,000 boulders of varying shapes and sizes-some say they represent the lost Jewish communities of the Holocaust. One hundred-forty of the boulders were engraved with the name of a town or village from which the Jews were deported.

End quote

My 1998 photo of the symbolic cemetery

My 1998 photo of the symbolic cemetery at Treblinka

There are no bodies that were buried in the location of the symbolic cemetery, shown in my photo above. That is why it is called a SYMBOLIC cemetery, not an actual cemetery where bodies are buried.  The purpose of this symbolic cemetery is to prevent anyone from digging up the ground to see if any bodies are  actually buried there.

In my humble opinion, there are no bodies buried in this area because Treblinka was a TRANSIT  camp, where no Jews were deliberately killed.

Symbolic cemetery behind Treblionka Monument

My 1998 photo of Symbolic cemetery behind Treblinka Monument



September 24, 2016

Famous Holocaust survivor Max Mannheimer has died

Filed under: Uncategorized — furtherglory @ 9:48 am

You can read a news article about the death of Max Mannheimer here:

Max Mannheimer is a controversial figure because he wrote a “später Tagebuch,” which is the German term for a diary written later. [später rhymes with later, as in later alligator]

Max Mannheimer wrote about his alleged years in several concentration camps, but he wrote his book many years after the  events allegedly happened.

I wrote about Mannheimer in several previous blog posts which you can read at

Angela Merkel walks beside Max Mannheimer

Angela Merkel walks beside Max Mannheimer

I personally believe that Max Mannheimer is a “liar, liar, pants on fire.” I don’t believe that he was ever in any concentration camp.


September 23, 2016

Josef Mengele wasn’t just whistling Dixie…

Filed under: Germany, Holocaust — Tags: , , , , — furtherglory @ 4:57 pm
Dr. Josef Mengele is the good looking guy on the far left

Dr. Josef Mengele is the good looking guy on the far left side of the photo

Notice that I did not give Josef Mengele his title of Dr. even though he had two doctorates. Mengele is never given his titles because he is alleged to have sent thousands of people to the gas chamber while he was whistling music by Mozart.

He even gave hair ribbons to some of the little girls. What a mean person he was! To send little girls to the gas chamber wearing ribbons in their hair!

The following quote is from a news article that you can read at

Dr. Josef Mengele

Dr. Josef Mengele

An Israeli artist who survived Auschwitz as a child has told how Dr Josef Mengele used to whistle Mozart as he chose who would be sent to die in the gas chambers.

“He must have loved Mozart, because if he was bored during the selection he always whistled Mozart,” Yehuda Bacon said.

The 87-year-old Mr Bacon was one of the so-called “Birkenau Boys” selected by Dr Mengele to work as forced labourers at Auschwitz.

He has spoken out about his experiences at the extermination camp in a new book published in Germany.

End quote

Dr. Josef Mengele arrived at Auschwitz Birkenau in early May 1943, just at the time that the second typhus epidemic at Birkenau was starting. Dr. Mengele himself contracted typhus while he was at Birkenau.

Dr. Mengele was nicknamed the “Angel of Death” by the prisoners because he had the face of an angel, yet he allegedly made selections for the gas chambers at Birkenau.

He was noted for being nice to the children in the camp, yet he allegedly experimented on them as though they were laboratory rats.

He volunteered to do the selections at Birkenau, even when it wasn’t his turn, because he wanted to find subjects for his medical research on genetic conditions and hereditary diseases, which he had already begun before the war. He particularly wanted to find twins for the research that he had started before he was posted to Birkenau.

Dr. Mengele was well known by all the prisoners because of his good looks and charm. According to Gerald L. Posner and John Ware, the authors of “Mengele, the Complete Story,” many of the children in the Birkenau camp “adored Mengele” and called him “Uncle Pepi.” This information came from Vera Alexander, a survivor of Birkenau, who said that Dr. Mengele brought chocolate and the most beautiful clothes for the children, including hair ribbons for the little girls.

Dr. Mengele had a Ph.D. in Anthropology as well as a degree in medicine, which he received in July 1938 from the University of Frankfurt. He earned his Ph.D. in 1935 with a thesis on “Racial Morphological Research on the Lower Jaw Section of Four Racial Groups.” [So he knew that there were physical differances between the racial groups.]

In January 1937, Dr. Mengele was appointed a research assistant at the Institute for Heredity, Biology and Racial Purity at the University of Frankfurt. He worked under Professor Otmar Freiherr von Verschuer, a geneticist who was doing research on twins.

As the war-time director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Hereditary Teaching Genetics, located in Berlin, von Verschuer secured the funds for Mengele’s experiments at Auschwitz. The results of Mengele’s research on twins was sent to this Institute. The grant for Mengele’s genetic research was authorized by the German Research Council in August 1943.

Olga Lengyel, a prisoner at the Birkenau camp, wrote in her book entitled “Five Chimneys” that she had heard about Dr. Mengele from the other inmates before she saw him. Lengyel wrote that she had heard that Dr. Mengele was “good-looking” but she was surprised by how “really handsome” he was. Lengyel wrote, regarding Dr. Mengele: “Though he was making decisions that meant extermination, he was as pleasantly smug as any man could be.”

Lengyel described how Dr. Mengele would take all the correct medical precautions while delivering a baby at Auschwitz, yet only a half hour later, he would send the mother and baby to be gassed and burned in the crematorium.

Lengyel herself was selected for the gas chamber, but managed to break away from the group of women who had been selected, before the truck arrived to take the prisoners to the crematorium.

The first systematic selection for the gas chambers at Birkenau was allegedly made when a transport of Jews arrived at Auschwitz on July 4, 1942. The train stopped a short distance from the Auschwitz train station at a wooden platform called the “Judenrampe,” where the selection process took place.

The Jews who were considered fit to work were marched to the Auschwitz main camp, which was close to the Judenrampe. There they were given a shower, their heads were shaved, a number was tattooed on their left forearm, and a registration card was made for them.

Those who were not considered fit for work were taken immediately by truck from the Judenrampe to two make-shift gas chambers at Birkenau, which were located in two converted farm houses called “the little red house” and “the little white house.”

At least 75% of the Jews in each transport of 2,000 to 3,000 prisoners were deemed unfit for work and were destined for the gas chamber. The little red house, also known as Bunker 1, had a capacity of 800 people in two rooms and the little white house, called Bunker 2, had a capacity of 1,200 in four rooms.

The first systematic selection for the gas chambers at Birkenau was made when a transport of Jews arrived at Auschwitz on July 4, 1942. The train stopped a short distance from the Auschwitz train station at a wooden platform called the “Judenrampe,” where the selection process took place. The Jews who were considered fit to work were marched to the Auschwitz main camp, which was close to the Judenrampe. There they were given a shower, their heads were shaved, a number was tattooed on their left forearm, and a registration card was made for them.

Those who were not considered fit for work were taken immediately by truck from the Judenrampe to two make-shift gas chambers at Birkenau, which were located in two converted farm houses called “the little red house” and “the little white house.” At least 75% of the Jews in each transport of 2,000 to 3,000 prisoners were deemed unfit for work and were destined for the gas chamber. The little red house, also known as Bunker 1, had a capacity of 800 people in two rooms and the little white house, called Bunker 2, had a capacity of 1,200 in four rooms.

All of the incoming prisoners were told that they would first be given a shower; the prisoners who were selected for work took a real shower, but the rest were taken by trucks to the two old farm houses, where the gas chambers were disguised as shower rooms.

The little white house was located on the west side of the Birkenau camp, behind the Central Sauna which was completed in 1943, and near Krema IV. The Central Sauna got its name because this was the location of the iron chambers where the prisoners’ clothing was disinfected with hot steam. The Central Sauna also contained a shower room with 50 shower heads.

The little red house was located north of where Krema V was built in 1943. Both Krema IV and Krema V allegedly had homicidal gas chambers, disguised as shower rooms, where Zyklon-B gas pellets were thrown through the outside windows, killing the unsuspecting victims inside.

Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler visited Auschwitz-Birkenau on July 17 and 18, 1942 and watched the gassing of 449 women and children in Bunker No. 1, according to his biographer Peter Padfield.

On July 23, 1942, Himmler ordered the quarantine of the Birkenau camp because of a typhus epidemic, but the gassing of the Jews allegedly continued.

On December 28, 1942, Himmler issued an order that the death rate “must be reduced at all costs” according to document 2172-PS that was introduced at the Nuremberg IMT. He meant the death rate from typhus, of course; the gassing of the Jews did not stop.

End of story





“If Republicans were doing that, they’d be warming up the gas chamber right now.”

Filed under: Germany, Holocaust — Tags: , — furtherglory @ 10:13 am

The title of my blog post is a quote from a speech made by Donald Trump, Jr. — the son of The Donald.

You can read the full story at

Here is the full quote:

Begin quote

In an interview with Chris Stigall on Talk Radio 1210 WPHT, Donald Trump Jr. made the argument that Republicans would be punished if they lied or schemed in fashions similar to Democratic candidate Hillary Clinton’s campaign. And then he decided to talk about gas chambers.

“The media has been her number one surrogate in this. Without the media, this wouldn’t even be a contest, but the media has built her up,” Trump Jr said. “They’ve let her slide on every indiscrepancy [sic], on every lie, on every DNC game trying to get Bernie Sanders out of this thing. If Republicans were doing that, they’d be warming up the gas chamber right now.”

End quote

Donald Jr. is now claiming that he was referring to a gas chamber like the one in Jefferson City, MO which is no longer being used. I don’t know of any place in America that still uses a gas chamber for an execution.

When someone says “gas chamber” now, everyone assumes that the person is referring to a gas chamber like the one allegedly used at Auschwitz-Birkenau shown in my photo below.

Alleged gas chamber in the Auschwitz main camp

My 2005 photo of the alleged gas chamber in the Auschwitz main camp


September 22, 2016

the story of Jews getting off a train near Magdeburg is back in the news

Filed under: Holocaust, World War II — furtherglory @ 3:19 pm
The cover of a book about Holocaust survivors

The cover of Matt Rozell’s book about Holocaust survivors who were rescued from a train

The photo above shows Holocaust survivors who have been rescued from certain death. These women and children are not returning from a fashion show, as one might think, judging from the clothes that they are wearing.

The following quote is from a news story about the photo shown above:

Begin quote

HUDSON FALLS — Matt Rozell’s first book [not the book in this story] is ranked higher on the Kindle World War II best-sellers list than famed author Laura Hillenbrand’s “Unbroken.”

It seems, then, a good time for the release of the Hudson Falls High School history teacher’s second book, “A Train Near Magdeburg: A Teacher’s Journey into the Holocaust and the Reuniting of the Survivors and Liberators, 70 Years On.”

Rozell has dedicated much of his career to leading his students through research on World War II, interviewing veterans and recording their stories (many of which are featured in his successful book, “The Things Our Father Saw: The Untold Stories of the World War II Generation from Hometown USA”).

One afternoon in 2001, he was interviewing World War II veteran Carrol Walsh.

“It was two hours worth of horrific World War II stories, being in a tank, being in combat constantly for 10 months with a lot of close calls,” Rozell recalled. “Then his daughter chimed in, ‘Did you tell him about the train?'”

Walsh was among U.S. soldiers at the scene of the liberation of a death train in a small town outside Madgeburg, Germany, in 1945. The retired state Supreme Court justice gave Rozell the name of a veteran who had a camera that day.

Rozell reached out to George Gross and discovered a photograph that would forever change his life and, in a small way, history.

Rozell posted the photograph — a woman running uphill away from the train, holding the hand of a child, surrounded by other Holocaust survivors — with Gross’ permission, on the school’s website. It received little attention.

Four years later, an Australian grandmother called Rozell, saying she was a 7-year-old on the train when it was liberated.

End quote


The strange story of the Rumbuli forest massacre

Filed under: Holocaust, World War II — furtherglory @ 9:49 am

One of the regular readers of my blog wrote this comment in which the Rumbuli forest was mentioned.

Begin quote from comment written by Talbot:

“Its claimed that these 2,000 deportees from Theresienstadt were taken all the way – 1,300 kilometres – to the Rumbulla Forest just outside Riga in Latvia. Why the Nazis wanted to take them that enormous distance just to kill them all is difficult to fathom. […] The Rumbulla Forest sounds remote and sinister, but a quick glance on Google Earth shows that the “forest” consists of a narrow strip of scrubby heathland – no more than 500 metres wide – between a parallel main road and a major railway line, and right on the outskirts of the sprawling city of Riga.

That’s a strange location for a massacre site, because not only were the 2,000 from Therensienstadt massacred there, but up to 25,000 Latvian Jews from the Riga Ghetto who it is alleged were brought to the site in two batches during late-November and December 1941.The story goes, that after the shootings, the bodies were buried in six huge pits and left there to rot for well over a year before they were all dug up again and somehow burnt in their entirety so that they vanished forever.”

End quote from comment written by Talbot

Theresienstadt was originally set up as a holding camp, from which Jews would be sent to the east, according to Holocaust historians.

The first transport to be sent to the east from Theresienstadt consisted of 2,000 Jews who were sent to Riga on January 9, 1942 from the Bohusovice train station.

According to Holocaust historian Martin Gilbert, all 2,000 of them were taken to the nearby Rumbuli forest where they were shot. The most horrible aspect of this is that the Jewish “self-government” in the camp was initially in charge of selecting the people for the transports, although they did not know what their fate would be at that time.

Unwittingly, they sent the young able-bodied Jews to their deaths, thinking that they were sending workers to labor camps in the east.

A total of 44,693 Jews from Theresienstadt were sent to Auschwitz, where all but a few of them allegedly perished.

On September 8, 1943, a transport of 5,006 Czech Jews was sent to Auschwitz where they were put into a “family camp” which was liquidated six months later. There were 22,503 Jews from Theresienstadt who were transported to unknown destinations in the east.

In keeping with the stated policy at the Wannsee Conference on January 20, 1942, Hitler’s plan was to evacuate all the Jews to the east. Eight thousand Jews were sent from Theresienstadt to Treblinka and 1,000 to Sobibor, two death camps that were right on the border between German occupied Poland and the Soviet Union.

Another 1,000 Jews were transported from the Theresienstadt ghetto to a concentration camp near the village of Maly Trostenets, just outside of Minsk in what is now Belarus, better known to Americans as White Russia.

Two thousand Jews from the Theresienstadt ghetto were sent to Zamosc, 3,000 to Izbica and 3,000 to Lublin, all of which were cities near the eastern border of occupied Poland.

Although the Theresienstadt ghetto was originally supposed to be a home for elderly Jews, the Nazis began including some of the older inmates in the transports to the east after the camp population on September 18, 1942 had reached 58,497, its highest number of prisoners.

With such horrendous overcrowding, the death toll was around 4,000 just for the month of September in 1942 and most of the dead were elderly people. Between September 19, 1942 and October 22, 1942, there were 11 transports carrying ghetto inmates from Theresienstadt to other camps farther east in order to relieve the overcrowding.

Toward the end of the war, there were rumors circulating in all of the major Nazi concentration camps that Hitler had given the order for all the inmates to be killed before the arrival of the Soviet or American soldiers. This was believed to be the purpose for building a gas chamber at Theresienstadt in 1945 at the tail end of the war.

At Auschwitz, the inmates were given the choice to stay in the camp, or to follow the Germans on a death march to the camps in the west before the Soviet army arrived. Very few stayed behind, except those who were too old or too sick to walk, because the prisoners believed that they would be killed if they stayed.

After April 20, 1945, there were 13,454 of these wretched survivors from Auschwitz and other camps who poured into Theresienstadt. Some were housed in the Hamburg barracks, right by the railroad tracks. The others were put into temporary wooden barracks outside the ghetto, which were taken down soon after the war.

Some of the newcomers had been evacuated from Buchenwald on April 5th just before the camp was liberated by American troops on April 11, 1945. Before the Americans arrived, Hitler himself had given the order to evacuate the Jews from Buchenwald in an effort to prevent them from exacting revenge on German citizens after they were freed.

Some of them arrived at Theresienstadt in terrible condition after they had been traveling by train for two weeks without food. After the liberation of Buchenwald, some of the prisoners, who had not been evacuated, commandeered American army jeeps and weapons, then drove to the nearby town of Weimar where, in an orgy of revenge, they looted German homes and shot innocent civilians at random; this was the type of thing that the Nazis were trying to prevent by evacuating the concentration camps before they were liberated.

According to Holocaust survivor Ben Helfgott, who was one of the prisoners brought to Theresienstadt in the last days of the war, the inmates of the Theresienstadt ghetto went on a rampage as soon as they were released. They looted homes, beat to death an SS guard from the ghetto, and attacked the ethnic Germans who were now homeless refugees, fleeing to Germany, after being driven out of the Czech provinces of Bohemia and Moravia.

Some of the people who arrived from the evacuated camps were former inmates of Theresienstadt who were now returning. Others were Jews who had been in the eastern concentration camps for years. On May 3, 1945, the ghetto was turned over to the Red Cross, by Commandant Karl Rahm.

According to Martin Gilbert in his book entitled “Holocaust Journey,” Rahm told the Red Cross that he had received orders from Berlin to kill all the inmates in the ghetto before the Russians arrived, but he had disobeyed the order. Gilbert wrote that because of this, Rahm was allowed to leave the camp unmolested on the day before the Russians arrived on May 8, 1945. He was later captured and tried in a Special People’s Court in nearby Litomerice; he was held in the Small Fortress at Theresienstadt until he was executed in 1947.


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