Scrapbookpages Blog

September 14, 2013

Some 565,000 Hungarian Jews were murdered in the Holocaust, according to Yad Vashem

According to a JTA news article, which you can read in full here, Budapest will soon have a $22 million Holocaust memorial center in honor of the 437,000 Hungarian Jews who were deported to Auschwitz, starting in the Spring of 1944.

Hungarian Jews, photographed at Auschwitz

Hungarian Jews, photographed at Auschwitz

This quote is from the news article:

Some 565,000 Hungarian Jews were murdered in the Holocaust, according to the Yad Vashem Holocaust museum in Jerusalem. Many of them were deported to Auschwitz from the Jozsefvaros station, which hasn’t been used since 2005.

Why the discrepancy in the numbers?  Around 437,000 Jews were allegedly deported to Auschwitz from Hungary, but some 565,000 Hungarian Jews were murdered?

The answer is that some of Hungarian Jews were sent to the exchange camp at Bergen-Belsen, where many of them were “murdered” in the typhus epidemic during the last days of the war. The famous Anne Frank was one of the Jews who was “murdered” in the typhus epidemic.  Her body was buried in one of the mass graves at Belsen.

Jews who were murdered in the typhus epidemic at Bergen-Belsen

Jews who were murdered in the typhus epidemic at Bergen-Belsen

Jewish survivors at the Bergen-Belsen exchange camp

Jewish survivors of the typhus epidemic at the Bergen-Belsen exchange camp

The Hungarians were the last group of Jews to be deported by the Nazis.

At the start of World War II, both Hungary and Bulgaria had been allies of Germany. On April 17, 1943, after Bulgaria had refused to allow their Jews to be deported, Hitler met with Admiral Nicholas Horthy, the Hungarian leader, in Salzburg and tried to persuade him to allow the Jews of Hungary to be “resettled” in Poland. According to Martin Gilbert in his book, Never Again, Admiral Horthy rejected Hitler’s arguments and refused to deport the Hungarian Jews.

In mid March 1944, Germany occupied Hungary, and the deportation of the Jews began a few weeks later. The first transport of Hungarian Jews to the Auschwitz death camp was on April 29,1944, according to Yehuda Bauer, who wrote, in his book Freikauf von Juden?, that mass transports of Hungarian Jews to Auschwitz began on May 14, 1944.

Hungarian Jews arriving at Auschwitz in 1944

Hungarian Jews arriving at Auschwitz in 1944

The last mass transport of 14,491 Hungarian Jews to Auschwitz was on July 9, 1944, according to Franciszek Piper, who wrote in his book Die Zahl der Opfer von Auschwitz that most of the Hungarian Jews were gassed immediately upon arrival at Auschwitz.

On August 13, 1944, a small transport of 131 Jews arrived from Hungary at Auschwitz and on August 18, 1944 the last transport of 152 Jews arrived. By that time, a minimum of 437,685 Hungarian Jews had been transported to Auschwitz on 148 trains, mostly the Jews living in the villages and smaller towns, according to Franciszek Piper.

Hungarian Jews waiting to enter the gas chambers at Auschwitz

Hungarian Jews waiting to enter the gas chambers at Auschwitz

Robert E. Conot wrote in his book Justice at Nuremberg that 330,000 of the Hungarian Jews were sent directly to the gas chambers. How did he know that?  The Nazis did not keep records of the names of the Jews who were gassed, so the numbers given by the Holocaust historians are pure speculation.

If the name of even one Jew, who was gassed, were known, then Bradley Smith would stop incessantly pestering college professors to give the name (with proof) of one Jew who was gassed.

Tracks were extended to the inside of the Birkenau camp for the Hungarian Jews in 1944

Tracks were extended to the inside of the Birkenau camp for the Hungarian Jews in 1944

By May 1944, the railroad tracks had been extended into the Birkenau camp and the transport trains stopped a few yards from two of the four gas chamber buildings. According to the US Holocaust Museum, there were 200,000 Jews still living in Budapest after these deportations.

On April 7, 1944, two Jews, Rudolf Vrba and Alfred Wetzler, managed to escape from Birkenau, the infamous Auschwitz II camp where several gas chambers were located. They made their way back to Slovakia and wrote a report which soon reached the hands of the Pope, the King of Sweden, and even President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The neutral nations such as Sweden and Switzerland began to issue passports that saved the lives of thousands of Hungarian Jews.

The Jewish Secretary of the Treasury, Henry Morgenthau, Jr. and Judge Samuel I. Rosenman, a Jewish adviser to President Roosevelt, urged him to intervene, according to Conot. Roosevelt threatened that “Hungary’s fate will not be like any other civilized nation’s…unless the deportations are stopped.” According to Conot, American planes bombed Budapest and its railroad facilities on July 2, 1944 in an effort to prevent the Hungarian Jews from being deported.

The Judenrampe where the Jews got off the trains before the tracks were extended inside the camp

The Judenrampe where the Jews got off the trains before the tracks were extended inside the camp

Elderly Jews at Auschwitz, waiting for a truck to take them to the gas chamber

Elderly Jews at Auschwitz, waiting for a truck to take them to the gas chamber

The Hungarian government and Admiral Horthy were informed that Vrba and Wetzler had proof that the Jews were being gassed at Auschwitz. Vrba, who worked at the Judenrampe, had counted the number of Jews who arrived at Birkenau and were then never seen again. Vrba’s estimate was that 1,765,000 Jews had been gassed at Auschwitz-Birkenau by March 1944, just before he made his escape.  The Hungarian Jews were not included in this number.

The Auschwitz Museum has lowered the number of Jews, estimated to have been gassed or killed by other means at Auschwitz, to 900,000.  According to the news article in the JTA, more than half of them were Hungarian Jews.  Most of the Holocaust survivors alive today are Hungarian Jews.  Each of the survivors has a unique story to tell, explaining why they were not gassed.  The most famous story was told by Irene Zisblatt.

According to the JTA news article, “an emphasis will be placed on Hungarians who saved Jews during the Holocaust, MTI reported.”

After Hitler himself put pressure on Horthy to deport the Budapest Jews to Auschwitz, the Hungarian government decided to begin transporting the Budapest Jews on August 25, 1944. According to Yehuda Bauer, the plan was to transport the Jews on 6 trains with 20,000 Jews on each train; the first train was scheduled to leave for Auschwitz on August 27, 1944. However, the deportation plans were stopped when the Hungarian government received a telegram from Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler on August 24th; Himmler ordered the preparations for the deportation of the Budapest Jews to stop.

Jews at the Bergen-Belsen exchange camp

Jews at the Bergen-Belsen exchange camp

According to Eberhard Kolb, who wrote a book which is sold at the Bergen-Belsen Memorial Site, Reichsführer Himmler had already opened a special section at the Bergen-Belsen exchange camp on July 8, 1944, where 1683 Hungarian Jews from Budapest were brought. The Jews in the Hungarian section were treated better than all the others at Bergen-Belsen. They received better food and medical care and were not required to work. They wore their own clothes, but were required to wear a yellow Star of David patch. The Bergen-Belsen camp had different categories of prisoners, and the Hungarian Jews were in the category of Preferential Jews (Vorzugsjuden) because they were considered desirable for exchange purposes.

The first transport of 318 “exchange Jews” left the Bergen-Belsen Hungarian camp on August 18, 1944, bound for Switzerland. On August 20th, the trainload of Hungarian Jews arrived in Bregenz and then went on to St. Gallen the next day.

Himmler, who was beginning to think of himself as Hitler’s successor, had begun working behind Hitler’s back in negotiating with the Jews. On August 21, 1944, three SS officers (Kurt Becher, Max Grüson and Hermann Krumey) who were representing Himmler, and a representative of the Budapest Jews, Rudolf Kastner, met with Saly Mayer, a leading member of the Jewish Community in Switzerland.

The meeting took place in the middle of a bridge at St. Margarethen, on the border between Germany and Switzerland, because Mayer refused to enter Germany and he also did not want the SS men to enter Switzerland, according to Yehuda Bauer. Becher asked for farm machinery and 10,000 trucks, and in return, he promised to free 318 Hungarian Jews from Bergen-Belsen. In a show of good faith, the train with the 318 Jews was already waiting at the Swiss border. Mayer offered minerals and industry goods instead of the trucks.

According to Yehuda Bauer, Becher later claimed that he had persuaded Himmler not to deport the Budapest Jews, and that was why Himmler issued an order to stop the deportation three days later.

A second group of 1368 Hungarian Jews left the Bergen-Belsen detention camp on December 4, 1944 and entered Switzerland just after midnight on December 7th, according to Yehuda Bauer. One of the Hungarian Jews in this group was 11-year-old Adam Heller, who survived and became a Professor in the Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Texas in Austin, TX.

Altogether, there was a total of 2,896 Jews released for ransom, including a transport of 1210 Jews from the Theresienstadt Ghetto who entered Switzerland on February 7, 1945.

After the departure of the second Hungarian transport to Switzerland in December, more transports from Budapest continued to arrive at Bergen-Belsen and the Hungarian section remained in existence there until April 1945. According to Eberhard Kolb, it was a transport of Hungarian Jews in February 1945 that bought in the lice that started a typhus epidemic in the camp. The delousing facilities in the camp had been temporarily out of order at that time.

When Hitler learned that Himmler was negotiating to ransom the Hungarian Jews, he became so enraged that he later expelled Himmler from the Nazi party. However, Hitler had already given his permission in December 1942 to release Jews for ransom, so Himmler was not going against established Nazi policy.

After the Hungarian Jews had entered Switzerland, there were false reports by the Swiss press that the Jews were being ransomed in exchange for asylum for 200 SS officers who were planning to defect. When Hitler heard this, from Ernst Kaltenbrunner who was no friend of Himmler, he ordered all further releases of Jews for ransom to stop. Nevertheless, Himmler continued to release Jews from the concentration camps, as he continued to negotiate with the Allies. For example, he allowed a transport of prisoners to leave the Ravensbrück women’s camp in the last days of the war.

Between April 6 and April 11, the Hungarian Jews were evacuated from Bergen-Belsen on the orders of Himmler who was planning to use them as bargaining chips in his negotiations with the Allies. The Jews in the Star Camp and also in the Neutrals Camp were also evacuated, along with the Hungarians, in three trains which held altogether about 7,000 Jews who were considered “exchange Jews.”

One of these trains arrived with 1712 people on April 21, 1945 in the Theresienstadt ghetto in Czechoslovakia. Two weeks later the Theresienstadt Ghetto was turned over to the Red Cross, just before Russian troops arrived. The other two trains never made it to Theresienstadt because they had to keep making detours due to frequent Allied air attacks, according to Eberhard Kolb, who wrote a book entitled Bergen-Belsen from 1943 to 1945, which I purchased at the Belsen Memorial Site.

One of the trains finally stopped on April 14 near Magdeburg in northern Germany; the guards ran away and the Jews on the train were liberated by the American troops. The third train halted on April 23, 1945 near the village of Tröbitz in the Niederlausitz region; they were liberated by Russian troops after the guards escaped.

November 1, 2012

Maryland students hear a talk by a survivor of the Bergen-Belsen exchange camp

Filed under: Holocaust — Tags: , — furtherglory @ 11:16 am

There are hundreds of Holocaust survivors who are giving talks to American students about the horrors of the concentration camps and the “death camps” which they survived.  From an article in the Washington Post, I learned about Emanuel “Manny” Mandel, a survivor of the Bergen-Belsen exchange camp, who spoke to students in Maryland.

This quote is from the Washington Post:

Mandel was the youngest survivor to address the students Tuesday.

He was raised in Budapest and was 8 when he was sent to Bergen-Belsen with his mother in 1944.

Nothing more was said in the article in the Washington Post, but I immediately recognized that Manny might have been one of the prisoners at Bergen Belsen, who were exchanged for prisoners being held by the Allies.  So I did a search and found another article here which explains how Manny survived six months in the Bergen-Belsen exchange camp before it was turned into a concentration camp in December 1944.

This quote is from the article which you can read in full here:

Manny Mandel was only 7 years old when the Germans occupied Budapest in March 1944.

[…]

Mandel and his family were among a group of Jews that were going to be traded in exchange for materials and goods from the Allied powers, a deal which was being negotiated by Nazi commander Adolf Eichmann. About 1,600 to 1,700 Hungarian Jews left Hungary and were promised they would be transported safely to Switzerland, he said. When the negotiations fell through, they were taken on a train to the Bergen-Belsen camp.

While his father was off performing hard labor for the government, Manny and his mother were taken to Bergen-Belsen in July 1944. He said they stayed in barracks 11 and 12. Each barrack held about 100 people with triple bunk beds.

Manny and his mother were taken out of the camp in December 1944. They were taken by Nazi transport to Switzerland, first to a Red Cross hotel in Caux, the French part of Switzerland, near Montreux, and later to a children’s home in Heiden.

Nineteen other children went with them. Manny said his mother was allowed to go because she was a former schoolteacher and was fluent in German, French and Hungarian, and would be able to translate lessons.

After the war ended, Manny and Ella traveled by ship to Palestine. They learned his father had survived and was in Hungary. Manny’s father had boarded a ship in La Spezia, Italy, along with 100 other people who were trying to get into Israel illegally, but the ship was stopped by British destroyers.

“As part of an agreement, the British would not allow any more Jews into Israel and had closed the borders,” Mandel said. Mandel said his father and the 100 other people went on a hunger strike for several days until the British finally decided to let them go.

Did Manny tell the Maryland students the truth about Bergen-Belsen being an exchange camp and the truth about the British trying to keep Jews out of Palestine while Hitler was sneaking Jews into Palestine via “The Transfer Agreement”?

I did learn something new from the article:

“There was not a stick left from 65 years ago,” Mandel said. “The Germans burned down almost everything before the British came and destroyed most of the records.”

When British forces liberated the camp on April 15, 1945, they discovered about 60,000 prisoners and thousands of unburied corpses on the camp grounds. After evacuating Bergen-Belsen, British forces burned down what was left of the camp to prevent the spread of typhus.

Why would the Germans have destroyed “most of the records” from an EXCHANGE camp?  Did they want to prevent future historians from knowing that Hitler had a plan to exchange 30,000 Jews for 30,000 prisoners in Allied camps?  You can read about the Bergen-Belsen exchange camp on my website here.  I previously blogged about the records in the Bergen-Belsen camp here.

As for Manny Mandel’s statement that the Germans burned down “almost everything” at Bergen-Belsen, where did the prisoners live until the British arrived?

After the British burned down the barracks at Bergen-Belsen, the prisoners were moved to the SS barracks that were adjacent to the camp.

This quote is from the article in the Washington Post:

They came as part of a program aimed at connecting curriculum with real life. The students are reading Anne Frank’s diary.

If this program in a Maryland school was aimed at connecting the curriculum with real life, I wonder if Manny Mandel pointed out that, unlike Anne Frank, who was sent from Auschwitz to Bergen-Belsen, he was in “the Hungarian camp” where prisoners were treated very well as they waited to be exchanged?

I previously blogged here about how Anne Frank would have fared if her family had not gone into hiding.

This quote is from this page of my website about the 8 separate camps at Bergen-Belsen:

4. Hungarian Camp (Ungarnlager)

This camp was established on July 8, 1944 for 1683 Jews from Hungary. According to the Memorial Site, they were treated even better than the inmates in the Star camp. They were allowed to wear civilian clothes, with a Star of David sewn on. They did not have to work, nor were they forced to attend the endless roll calls. They were given better food and the sick were properly cared for. They were known as Vorzugsjuden or Preferential Jews. Like the Star Camp, this camp had a Jewish self-administration.

5. Star Camp (Sternlager)

Approximately 4,000 Jewish prisoners, mostly from the Netherlands, lived in the Star camp, where conditions were somewhat better than in other parts of Bergen-Belsen. In the Star camp, the prisoners wore a yellow Star of David on their own clothes instead of the usual blue and gray striped prison uniform, but they did have to work, even the old people, according to the Memorial Site.

In spite of the fact that Manny Mandel was in the very best section of the Bergen-Belsen exchange camp, he had to tell something about the horror of the camp.  This quote is from this article:

Manny said he had symptoms of what was pneumonia. Since antibiotics were not available, he and his mother wrapped burlap sacks covered with muster plaster around his body to treat the infection in his lungs.

Mandel said the prisoners knew full well that the Nazi officers would remove the sick people from the camp and take them to the dispensary, where they were never seen again.

Were the sick prisoners “never seen again” because they were put into a hospital in the camp or because they were killed, as Manny implied?

How did his mother manage to have “muster plaster” in a Nazi camp?  Oh, that’s right, Manny was in the best section of the camp, as he waited to be exchanged.  The truth is, that the “muster plaster” was probably supplied by the German doctors in the camp, who did not want to put little Manny in the hospital where he might have caught other diseases.

I had never heard of “muster plaster” so I had to look it up on Wikipedia, where I found this quote about MUSTARD PLASTER.

A mustard plaster is a poultice of mustard seed powder spread inside a protective dressing and applied to the chest or abdomen to stimulate healing. In times past and present, the mixture was spread onto a cloth and applied to the chest or back. The mustard paste itself should never make contact with the skin. Applied externally, black mustard is used in the treatment of bronchial pneumonia and pleurisy.

Fortunately Manny’s mother just happened to have some black mustard seed among her possessions in the Bergen-Belsen Hungarian camp, so Manny didn’t have to go to the camp hospital and he was saved from certain death.

I continued to search for other stories of Bergen-Belsen survivors who are speaking to American students and I came across an article here about Marion Blumenthal Lazan who has been speaking to students for 27 years.

Marion’s father was sent to a camp “for 10 days after Kristallnacht, and when he was released [the family] went to Holland.”  According to the article, “They were in Holland, waiting in the Westerbork detention camp to leave for the United States in December 1939 when Germany invaded.”  (Germany invaded Holland in 1939?)

It is my understanding that the “Westerbork detention camp” was originally set up for Jews who were in Holland illegally; it was later turned into a transit camp for Jews who were sent to concentration camps. I previously blogged about Westerbork here.

In January 1944, the Blumenthal family was sent to Bergen-Belsen.  The photo below shows Marion holding up a Gold Star which she and her family had to wear in Bergen-Belsen. This means that she was in “the Star camp,” where prisoners at Bergen-Belsen were treated well.

Marion Blumenthal-Lazan gave a stirring talk on her surviving the holocaust and the horrendous living conditions in the concentration camps during W.W. II. She holds up the yellow Star of David she was given to wear in the interment camp in Holland and had to continue to wear it while she was a prisoner in German concentration camp. Photo by JohnStrickler/The Mercury

Marion has written a book that is in its 23rd printing and has been translated into German, Dutch and Japanese, as well as being the inspiration for an hour-long documentary titled “Marion’s Triumph — Surviving History’s Nightmare.”

With her book and the documentary, combined with speaking to students for 27 years, how much money has Marion made off her four months of imprisonment in the Star Camp of Bergen-Belsen?

April 20, 2012

Holocaust survivor was liberated by the Soviet Army while on the train to the gas chamber on April 23, 1945

Filed under: Germany, Holocaust, World War II — Tags: — furtherglory @ 5:26 pm

I read in a news article here that Marion Blumenthal Lazan, a Holocaust survivor, told a group of middle school students that she was on a train to the gas chamber when the train was liberated by Soviet Soldiers on April 23, 1945.

This quote is from the article in The Tribune, a newspaper in Greeley, CO:

Lazan’s family was liberated by the Soviet Army while on the train to the gas chamber on April 23, 1945. The war between Russia and Germany kept her alive, she said. The 10-hour train trip became two weeks because the train was blocked, and it never arrived at its destination. She spent her last two weeks in captivity crammed into a train with no food, dirty water and no sanitation.

Germany was losing the war in April 1945 and the war was very nearly over.  Yet the Nazis continued their genocial killing of the Jews until the very end.  Regarding the last days of the war and the killing of the Jews, Daniel Goldhagen wrote in his best-selling book Hitler’s Willing Executioners :

Finally, the fidelity of the Germans to their genocidal enterprise was so great as seeming to defy comprehension. Their world was disintegrating around them, yet they persisted in genocidal killing until the end.

The train to the gas chamber was coming from Bergen-Belsen, but where was it going?  I learned at the Bergen-Belsen memorial site that there were three trains headed to the Theresienstadt camp in April 1945.

Bergen-Belsen was an exchange camp, set up for exchanging Jews for Germans being held as prisoners by the Allies.  It became a concentration camp only in the last months of the war.

According to a book written by Eberhard Kolb, which I purchased at the Bergen-Belsen memorial site, Reichsführer Heinrich Himmler had opened a special section at the Bergen-Belsen exchange camp on July 8, 1944, where 1,683 Hungarian Jews from Budapest were brought.

The Jews in the Hungarian section were treated better than all the others at Bergen-Belsen. They received better food and medical care and were not required to work. They wore their own clothes, although they were required to wear a yellow Star of David patch.

The Bergen-Belsen camp had different categories of prisoners, and the Hungarian Jews were in the category of Preferential Jews (Vorzugsjuden) because they were considered desirable for exchange purposes.

Marion Blumenthal was probably in the Vorzugsjuden section of Bergen-Belsen described above by Eberhard Kolb.

I learned the following information on my trip to the Bergen-Belsen memorial site:

Altogether, there was a total of 2,896 Jews released for ransom, including a transport of 1,210 Jews from the Theresienstadt Ghetto who entered Switzerland on February 7, 1945.

After the departure of the second Hungarian transport to Switzerland in December, more transports from Budapest continued to arrive at Bergen-Belsen and the Hungarian section remained in existence there until April 1945.

After the Hungarian Jews had entered Switzerland, there were false reports by the Swiss press that the Jews were being ransomed in exchange for asylum for 200 SS officers who were planning to defect. When Hitler heard this, from Ernst Kaltenbrunner who was no friend of Himmler, he ordered all further releases of Jews for ransom to stop. Nevertheless, Himmler continued to release Jews from the concentration camps, as he continued to negotiate with the Allies.

Between April 6 and April 11, the Hungarian Jews were evacuated from Bergen-Belsen on the orders of Himmler who was planning to use them as bargaining chips in his negotiations with the Allies. The Jews in the Star Camp and also in the Neutrals Camp were also evacuated, along with the Hungarians, in three trains which held altogether about 7,000 Jews who were considered “exchange Jews.”

One of these trains arrived with 1,712 people on April 21, 1945 and entered the Theresienstadt ghetto in Czechoslovakia. Two weeks later the Theresienstadt Ghetto was turned over to the Red Cross, just before Russian troops arrived. The other two trains never made it to Theresienstadt because they had to keep making detours due to frequent Allied air attacks, according to Eberhard Kolb’s book Bergen-Belsen from 1943 to 1945.

One of the trains finally stopped on April 14, 1945 near Magdeburg in northern Germany; the guards ran away and the Jews on the train were liberated by American troops. The third train halted on April 23, 1945 near the village of Tröbitz in the Niederlausitz region; they were liberated by Russian troops after the guards escaped.

Marion Blumenthal was on the train that stopped at the village of Tröbitz.  She was 10 years old and she had been a prisoner of the Nazis for 6 and 1/2 years.