Scrapbookpages Blog

July 2, 2016

pesecution of the Gypsies in the Holocaust

Filed under: Germany, Holocaust — Tags: , , , , — furtherglory @ 9:52 am
Famous photo of Stella Steinbach

Famous photo of Stella Steinbach

Several years ago, when I visited the memorial site at the Sachsenhausen concentration camp, I saw the famous photo of Stella Steinbach displayed in the Gypsy museum there.

photo taken in Gypsy museum at Sachsehausen

My photo taken in the Gypsy museum

A permanent exhibition entitled “The National Socialist Genocide of the Sinti and Roma” is shown at the Sachenhausen Memorial Site in the main western building of the SS workshops in the former Industrial Yard, outside the former prison enclosure at Sachsenhausen. This building was constructed in 1937-38; it was converted into museum space in 2001. A sign at the entrance to the Sachsenhausen Memorial Site directs visitors to the left where a road leads through the former Industrial Yard to the Museum.

The exhibits in the Sinti and Roma Museum consist only of photographs and text which tell the history of the Nazi genocide of the Gypsies. All of the text is in the German language with no translations into other languages. There are no artifacts, only photographs on large display boards.

The following quote about Stella Steinbach is from this website:

Begin quote

Anna Maria (Settela) Steinbach (December 23rd, 1934–July 31st, 1944) was a Dutch girl who was gassed in Nazi Germany’s Auschwitz concentration camp. She remained the symbol of the prosecution of the Dutch Jews, until it was discovered in 1994 that she was not Jewish but had belonged to the Sinti group of the Romani people.

Steinbach was born in Buchten near Born in southern Limburg as the daughter of a trader and violinist. On May 16th, 1944, a razzia against the Roma was organized in the whole of the Netherlands. Steinbach was arrested in Eindhoven. That very same day, she arrived with another 577 people in Camp Westerbork. 279 were allowed to leave again because although they lived in trailers they were not Roma. In Westerbork, Steinbach’s head was shaved as a preventive measure against head lice. Like the other Roma girls and women, she wore a torn sheet around her head to cover her bald head.

On May 19th, Settela was put on a transport together with 244 other Roma to Auschwitz-Birkenau on a train that contained also Jewish prisoners. Right before the doors were being closed, she apparently stared through the opening at a passing dog or the German soldiers. Rudolf Breslauer, a Jewish prisoner in Westerbork, who was shooting a movie on orders of the German camp commander filmed the image of Settela’s fearsome glance staring out of the wagon. Crasa Wagner also was in the same wagon and heard Settela’s mother call her name and warned her to pull her head out of the opening. Crasa Wagner survived Auschwitz and was able to identify Settela in 1994.

On May 22nd, the Dutch Roma, among whom was Settela Steinbach, arrived in Auschwitz-Birkenau. They were registered and taken to the Roma section. Roma that were fit to work were taken to ammunition factories in Germany. The remaining three thousand Roma were gassed in the period from July to August 3rd. Steinbach, her mother, two brothers, two sisters, her aunt, two nephews and a niece were part of this latter group. Of the Steinbach’s family, only the father survived who died in 1946 and lies buried in the cemetery of Maastricht.

End quote

One of the displays in the museum, at the Sachsenhauen memorial site, tells about the Gypsies who were transported from Westerbork, a transit camp in the Netherlands, to Auschwitz on May 19, 1944.

At Auschwitz, the Gypsies were put into a separate section where families were allowed to stay together. According to the Sachsenhausen Museum exhibit, on the night of the 2nd and 3rd of August 1944, Settela and her mother and 9 sisters were murdered in the gas chamber at Auschwitz.  What else could have happened to them? Could they have been taken to another camp? No one knows.


June 5, 2016

the Netherlands is finally getting a national Holocaust museum

Filed under: Germany, Holocaust, World War II — Tags: , , , — furtherglory @ 9:06 am

The title of my blog post today is a line from a news article, which you can read in full at

The following quote is from the news article, cited above:

Begin quote

AMSTERDAM — More than 70 years after tens of thousands of Dutch Jews were deported and killed by the Nazis, the Netherlands is finally getting a national Holocaust museum.


In all, 104,000 Dutch Jews were among the 6 million Jews murdered in the Holocaust. The theater is now home to a memorial to those victims.

End quote

The most important part of the news article comes later in this quote:

Begin quote

The nine paintings on show are collectively titled “The Demise of Abraham Reiss.” They trace the life of [Jeroen] Krabbe’s grandfather, who was murdered by the Nazis in 1943 in the Sobibor death camp in occupied Poland.

From a man sitting in a forest of birch trees on the edge of Amsterdam, the paintings trace Reiss’ life in pre-war Amsterdam to his detention in the Westerbork camp in the northeastern Netherlands and his arrival at Sobibor, where he was greeted by a snarling dog and shadowy, faceless guards. The final painting shows thick smoke billowing out of the chimney of Sobibor’s gas chamber and a flock of geese, whose honking was intended to drown out the screams of Jews being murdered, according to a text accompanying one of the paintings.

The artist said he couldn’t bring himself to visit Sobibor. So instead he drew on the memories of camp survivor Jules Schelvis, who wrote a book about his experiences and built models of the camp and its gas chambers. The models are exhibited in the same room as Krabbe’s paintings.

Krabbe said he also used his acting skills to imagine how his grandfather would respond to the horrors unfolding in his life.

“I wanted to get under his skin,” Krabbe told The Associated Press. “To imagine how it would be to experience what happened to him and how he would have reacted. It was like I had to play a role.”

End quote

Only 104,000 Dutch Jews were “murdered”? How many other Dutch Jews, including Anne Frank, died of disease, or natural causes, during the Holocaust?

It hardly seems worth it to have a national museum dedicated to only 104,000 citizens who were murdered.  Why not have a memorial to all the Dutch citizens who died during World War II, which would include Anne Frank, who died of typhus at Bergen-Belsen?

But to get back to Sobibor…..


Map of Sobibor camp

Sobibor is one of the few places, related to the Holocaust, that I have not visited.  From everything that I have read about Sobibor, I believe that it was a transit camp, from which Jews were sent to the east, never to return.

I have written several blog posts about Sobibor:

I have a section about Sobibor on my website at

Alert readers of my blog post might have noticed that the news article mentioned “thick smoke billowing out of the chimney of Sobibor’s gas chamber.”

A real gas chamber, like the one in Jefferson City, MO, is supposed to have a tall chimney to vent the gas high into the air. Did the Nazis have a gas chamber consultant, like Fred Leuchter, to advise them on the construction of the gas chamber at Sobibor?


May 15, 2016

a flock of geese, whose honking was intended to drown out the screams of Jews being murdered

Filed under: Germany, Holocaust — Tags: , , — furtherglory @ 10:42 am

I am commenting on a news article which you can read in full at

The following information is from the news article:

Begin quote:

Some 600 Jewish children were spirited to safety via the school [a former teacher training school in the heart of Amsterdam’s old Jewish quarter] from a neighboring kindergarten where they were being held while awaiting deportation, said curator Annemiek Gringold. On the other side of the street stands the Hollandsche Schouwburg, a theater used by the Nazi occupiers as a gathering point for Jews who were rounded up — often with the help of Dutch collaborators paid a bounty for each person they betrayed — and transported to their deaths.

In all, 104,000 Dutch Jews were among the 6 million Jews murdered in the Holocaust. The theater is now home to a memorial to those victims. Nearby are also the Jewish Historical Museum and a 17th-century Portuguese Synagogue.

The nine paintings on show Monday are collectively titled “The Demise of Abraham Reiss.” They trace the life of Krabbe’s grandfather, who was murdered by the Nazis in 1943 in the Sobibor death camp in occupied Poland.


the paintings trace Reiss’ life in pre-war Amsterdam to his detention in the Westerbork camp in the northeastern Netherlands and his arrival at Sobibor, where he was greeted by a snarling dog and shadowy, faceless guards. The final painting shows thick smoke billowing out of the chimney of Sobibor’s gas chamber and a flock of geese, whose honking was intended to drown out the screams of Jews being murdered, according to a text accompanying one of the paintings.

End quote

I have a section on my website about the Sobibor camp:

The following information is from my website:

The Sobibor camp was 400 meters wide and 600 meters long; the entire area was enclosed by a barbed wire fence that was three meters high. On three sides of the camp was a mine field, intended to keep anyone from approaching the camp.

The watch towers were manned by Ukrainian SS guards who had been conscripted from captured soldiers in the Soviet Army to assist the 30 German SS men who were the administrators of the camp. In 1965, a German court put 11 of the German SS guards on trial; 6 of them were sentenced to prison, and one committed suicide during the trial; the others were acquitted.

The victims arrived on trains which stopped at the ramp across from the Sobibor station, or in trucks from nearby Polish villages. Most of the Jews were transported in cattle cars, but the 34,000 Dutch Jews who were sent to Sobibor arrived in passenger trains, according to Toivi Blatt. The luggage of the Dutch Jews was transported in separate cars and the victims were given tags which they were told would be used to reclaim their bags. All of the belongings of the Jews were confiscated upon arrival.

At the entrance to the camp, the victims were instructed to deposit their hand baggage and purses before proceeding along the path, called the “Himmelfahrtstrasse” (Street to heaven), which led to the spot where the hair was cut from the heads of the women, and then on to the gas chambers disguised as showers. According to Toivi Blatt, all documents, photos and personal items were removed from the confiscated baggage and anything that could not be recycled to send to Germany was burned in open fires that lit up the night sky.

Monument at Sobibor shows location of gas chambers

Monument at Sobibor shows the location of the gas chamber where Jews were killed

The photo above shows the spot in Camp III at Sobibor, where a brick building with gas chambers once stood. A large block of stone [shown in the photo above] represents the gas chambers in two buildings at Sobibor, which were torn down long ago.

Survivors of Sobibor do not agree on the number or size of the gas chambers. The victims were killed with carbon monoxide from the exhaust of engines taken from captured Soviet tanks, which were stored in Camp IV. There is also disagreement on whether these were diesel engines or gasoline engines.

Stone monument at Sobibor

Red stone monument at Sobibor

The red stone sculpture shown in the photos above represents a woman, looking up at the sky, holding a small child in her arms. In the background can be seen the huge mound of ashes that is located in the former Camp III. These are the ashes of the Jews who were allegedly gassed and burned at Sobibor. Holocaust deniers believe that Sobibor was a transit camp.

A photo accompanies the news article. The caption on the photo, which I couldn’t put up for some unknown reason, is quoted below:

Dutch actor and artist Jeroen Krabbe poses in front of his painting which tells the story of his grandfather Abraham Reiss, left, who was murdered in the Sobibor Nazi German extermination camp, during a press preview at the National Holocaust Museum in Amsterdam, Netherlands, Thursday, May 12, 2016. More than 70 years after tens of thousands of Dutch Jews were deported and murdered by the Nazis, the Netherlands is finally getting a national Holocaust museum. (AP Photo/Peter Dejong)

Abraham Reiss was not actually murdered “during a press preview” but perhaps he did “throw mama from the train a kiss.”



March 16, 2016

Different colors of smoke for the different nationalities of concentration camp prisoners, whose bodies were burned

Filed under: Dachau, Germany, World War II — Tags: , , , — furtherglory @ 1:12 pm

One of the regular readers of my blog made a comment about the different colors of smoke when bodies of prisoners of the concentration camps were burned. Of course, this happened!  I am not a Holocaust denier as some people claim.

Here is the exact quote from the comment:

Begin quote

“He survived when the Germans ran out of gas, and while they were preoccupied, he escaped through the multi-colored smoke from the different nationalities burning in the krema.”

End quote

I am pretty sure that this comment was a joke, but in fact, there were different colors of smoke when the bodies of different nationalities of prisoners were burned in the Nazi concentration camps.

Many years ago, I wrote about this subject on this page of my website:

The following information is from the page of my website, which is cited above:

Begin quote

Mauthausen concentration camp, a Class III camp in Austria for “Return Unwanted” prisoners, was liberated on May 5, 1945; it was the last of the Nazi camps to be liberated by American troops, just three days before World War II ended on May 8, 1945.

The American soldiers were greeted by 37-year-old Lt. Jack H. Taylor, a Commando in the United States Navy, who had been captured after leading a sabotage mission behind enemy lines. Lt. Taylor had been a prisoner at Mauthausen for only 35 days; he had arrived in the camp on April 1, 1945, after being transferred from a Gestapo prison in Vienna because Soviet troops were 50 kilometers from the city and advancing rapidly.

End quote

Photo of Jack Taylor taken shortly after he was liberated from Mauthausen

Photo of Jack Taylor taken at Mauthausen shortly after he was liberated

The photograph above shows Lt. Jack Taylor, taken shortly after his liberation from the Mauthausen camp.

On his jacket, Lt. Taylor was required to wear a red triangle, pointing downward. This identified him as a non-German political prisoner.

Because he was fighting with a group of partisans, Lt. Jack Taylor was an illegal combatant under the Geneva Convention of 1929, and was not entitled to the rights of a Prisoner of War.

Lt. Taylor was imprisoned at the main camp at Mauthausen, but the mountains in the background of the photo indicate that it was taken at one of the sub-camps of Mauthausen.

Only hours after the liberation of the Mauthausen camp, Lt. Col. George C. Stevens, the famed Hollywood director, arrived to shoot some footage of Lt. Taylor for his film entitled “Nazi Concentration Camps,” which was shown at the Nuremberg International Military Tribunal on November 29, 1945. Lt. Taylor was a former dentist from Hollywood, California and he started off by saying that this was the first time he had ever been in a movie.

According to Lt. Taylor’s debriefing statement, there were two other American men at Mauthausen and two British citizens, one a pilot and one a spy in the SOE, when the camp was liberated, but none of them testified at Nuremberg, nor  at Dachau.

Lt. Taylor was the only American ever to testify for the prosecution in the Dachau trials and his testimony was considered to be more credible than that of the other former prisoners who might have been seeking revenge, more than justice.

After he was liberated from the Mauthausen camp, Jack Taylor was promoted to the rank of Lt. Commander. He stayed in Europe, after the war, to testify in the war crimes trials.

The photo below shows Lt. Cmdr. Jack H. Taylor on the witness stand at Dachau, looking much the same as he did in the photo taken after he was liberated from Mauthausen.

Jack Taylor on the witness stand

Jack Taylor on witness stand at Dachau

Lt. Cmdr. Taylor was a key witness at the Trial of the 61 accused men from the Mauthausen concentration camp. The prosecution had only to prove that there was a “common design” to commit war crimes at Mauthausen and that each of the accused had participated in that plan because he was associated with the camp in some capacity. Taylor’s testimony proved that there was a “common design” and all 61 of the accused were convicted.

Prior to the proceedings at Dachau in the Mauthausen case, Lt. Cmdr. Jack Taylor had given the following testimony at the Nuremberg International Military Tribunal:

Begin quote of Jack Taylor’s testimony:

“In October ’44, I was the first Allied officer to drop onto Austria. I was captured December 1st, by the Gestapo, severely beaten, ah, even though I was in uniform, severely beaten, and, and, considered as a non-prisoner of war. I was taken to Vienna prison where I was held for four months. When the Russians neared Vienna, I was taken to this Mauthausen concentration lager [camp], an extermination camp, the worst in Germany, where we have been starving and, and beaten and killed, ah, fortunately, my turn hadn’t come. Ah, two American officers at least have been executed here. Here is the insignia of one, a U.S. naval officer, and here is his dog tag. Here is the army officer, executed by gas in this lager [camp]. Ah…there were…

[Question: “How many ways did they execute them?”]

Five or six ways: by gas, by shooting, by beating, that is beating with clubs, ah, by exposure, that is standing out in the snow, naked, for 48 hours and having cold water put on them, thrown on them in the middle of winter, starvation, dogs, and pushing over a hundred-foot cliff.”

End of Jack Taylor’s testimony

After only 35 days in the notorious Mauthausen camp, Jack Taylor knew all about the crimes committed there: torture, hangings, shootings, beatings, and the execution of an unnamed American army officer in the gas chamber. A Special Finding, made by the president of the court, Maj. Gen. Fay B. Prickett, declared that there was enough evidence of death by shootings, gassings, hangings and starvation to find every member of the Mauthausen camp personnel guilty of war crimes, including Kapos, who were prisoners that had authority over other prisoners.

This Special Finding in the main Mauthausen proceeding was later used to establish guilt in subsequent proceedings against the staff and Kapos at Mauthausen. The “evidence” presented at the Mauthausen trial was mainly hearsay testimony by witnesses such as Jack Taylor.

Lt. Cmdr. Taylor was the first witness for the prosecution in the Mauthausen case, which was brought before an American Military Tribunal at Dachau. By now, he was an experienced prosecution witness and he elaborated on his Nuremberg testimony.

When asked by prosecutor Lt. Col. William Denson, on direct examination, how many different forms of killing that he had come in contact with in Mauthausen, Taylor testified as follows:

The following quote is from the testimony of Jack Taylor

Begin quote

Gassing, hanging, shooting, beating. There was one particular group of Dutch Jews who were beaten until they jumped over the cliff into the stone quarry. Some that were not killed on the first fall were taken back up and thrown over to be sure. Then there was exposure. Any new transport coming in was forced to stand out in the open, regardless of the time of the year, practically naked. Other forms of killing included clubbing to death with axes or hammers and so forth, tearing to pieces by dogs specially trained for the purpose, injections into the heart and veins with magnesium chloride or benzene, whippings with a cow-tail to tear the flesh away, mashing in a concrete mixer, forcing them to drink a great quantity of water and jumping on the stomach while the prisoner was lying on his back, freezing half-naked in subzero temperatures, buried alive, red-hot poker down the throat. I remember a very prominent Czech general who was held down in the shower room and had a hose forced down his throat. He drowned that way.

End quote from Jack Taylor’s testimony

Prisoners at Mauthausen were allegedly force to jump off this cliff

Prisoners at Mauthausen were allegedly forced to jump off this cliff, which I photographed on my visit to the Mauthausen camp

Of course, Jack Taylor had never seen anyone carried back up to the top of a cliff and thrown off a second time, nor had he ever seen anyone mashed in a concrete mixer, nor buried alive, nor killed with a red-hot poker shoved down his throat. These were stories that he had heard from the other prisoners.

This kind of hearsay testimony was common in all the Dachau proceedings. The purpose of reiterating these stories in sworn testimony on the witness stand was to get these atrocities entered into the record, so that these alleged crimes would go down in history for future generations to read as the gospel truth.

September 5, 2015

The Dutch Jews who returned to the Netherlands after the Holocaust

Filed under: Germany, Holocaust — Tags: , — furtherglory @ 9:26 am
The Anne Frank house is on the left side of the house with red shutters

The Anne Frank house is on the right side of the house with red shutters (click on the photo for a larger size)  Photo: Peter Horree/Alamy

The photo above is shown in a news article about the Dutch Jews in the Holocaust. The photo below is my photo of the Anne Frank House.  You can read all about Anne Frank on this page of my website:

My photo of the Anne Frank house

My photo of the Anne Frank house

This quote is from the news article which you can read in full here:

Amsterdam will refund relatives of hundreds of Jews who were fined for being late with their rent during their incarceration in World War II concentration camps, city officials said Friday.

“From today, the descendants of the families can ask to be reimbursed for the fines imposed for late rental payments during World War II, which were unfairly collected,” the Dutch city said in a statement.

The issue came to light in April 2013 when a student published archive documents in which Jews who had escaped from the concentration camps were billed for arrears on properties belonging to the city of Amsterdam.

The city even imposed fines for late rents on houses which had been confiscated by the Nazis and occupied by Germans or members of the Dutch National Socialist Movement, the NSB.

Some of the homes had even been destroyed in the German bombing campaign.

I am confused.  I thought that the Dutch Jews were killed in the Holocaust. But it seems that some of them escaped from the concentration camps, and they have descendants, who are alive and well and want money from the Germans.

I blogged about the Dutch Jews on this blog post:

Follow the links on the blog post cited above to learn more about the Dutch Jews.

August 21, 2015

The story of the dutch Jews gets curiouser and curiouser

Filed under: Germany, Holocaust — Tags: , , — furtherglory @ 10:01 am

This morning I read a news article, headlined Searching for Sophia.

Sophia van was a little Dutch girl who was murdered in the Holocaust

Sophia van Hasselt was a little Dutch girl who was murdered in the Holocaust

Photo courtesy of the Shukiar family

The news article begins with this quote:

Nine- year-old Sophia van Hasselt lined up to die with the other prisoners [at Auschwitz].

She and her parents, Simon and Geertje, and her older sister, Hermi, had been taken from the small village of Haulerwijk in the Netherlands and led to a gas chamber at the Nazi-controlled Auschwitz concentration camp in Poland on Feb. 12, 1943.

In a black-and-white photograph [shown above] snapped three years before her murder, Sophia, dressed as a bridesmaid at the double wedding of her aunts and uncles, smiled and stood close to her family.

The news article is a bit confusing. At least, to me, it is.  Is the date Feb. 12, 1943, the date of their arrival, and also the date that they were gassed? Or just the date of their arrival?

I didn’t know that the Nazis kept the names, as well as the dates that the Jews were gassed.  Was a whole train load of Jews, except for a few that were saved by Dr. Mengele, gassed on the date of arrival?  Yes, according to the official Holocaust story, which you must believe in 19 countries if you don’t want to go to prison for 5 or more years.  Allegedly, the Auschwitz-Birkenau gas chambers could handle 2,000 Jews at a time.

I have blogged several times, in the past, about the Dutch Jews:

On my website, I wrote about the Dutch Jews who were sent to the Star Camp at Bergen-Belsen:
Star Camp (Sternlager)

Approximately 4,000 Jewish prisoners, mostly from the Netherlands, lived in the Star camp, where conditions were somewhat better than in other parts of Bergen-Belsen. In the Star camp, the prisoners wore a yellow Star of David on their own clothes instead of the usual blue and gray striped prison uniform, but they did have to work, even the old people, according to the Memorial Site.

The following quote is from Eberhard Kolb’s book Bergen-Belsen from 1943 to 1945:

From the Dutch “transit camp'” at Westerbork all those inmates were transported to Bergen-Belsen who were on one of the coveted “ban lists”, above all the “Palestine list”, the “South America list”, or the “dual citizenship list”.

Holders of the so-called “Stamp 120000” were also taken to Bergen-Belsen, i.e. Jews with proven connections to enemy states, Jews who had delivered up large properties, diamond workers and diamond dealers who were held back from transportation to an extermination camp but who were not allowed to go abroad, as well as so-called “Jews of merit”.

A total of 3670 “exchange Jews” of these categories, always with their families were deported from Westerbork to Bergen-Belsen in eight transports between January and September 1944.

According to Kolb, there were only 6,000 Dutch Jews who returned home after the war, out of a total of 110,000 who were deported by the Nazis. 20,000 more Dutch Jews survived by going into hiding until the war was over. More than a third of those who survived the camps were inmates of the Bergen-Belsen Star Camp.

July 1, 2014

Dutch citizens don’t want a memorial designed by Daniel Liebeskind

Filed under: Germany, Holocaust — Tags: , , — furtherglory @ 8:51 am

When I checked my blog stats this morning, as I do the first thing every morning, I was surprised to see that more people in the Netherlands, than in America, had visited my blog yesterday.

I knew that something, related to the Holocaust, must be going on in the Netherlands, so I began frantically searching.  I found a news story here which tells about a new monument that has been proposed for Amsterdam; Daniel Libeskind will design this monument.  Residents of Amsterdam are objecting to this proposed monument.  “Not in my garden,” say residents.

The photo below is an example of the work of Daniel Libeskind, who favors ultra modern design. In my humble opinion, ultra modern design is not appropriate for a Holocaust Memorial.

Jewish Museum in Berlin designed by Daniel Liebeskind

Jewish Museum in Berlin designed by Daniel Liebeskind

According to the news article,  “Libeskind’s design, somewhat reminiscent of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington, D.C., includes walls displaying the names of 102,000 [Dutch] victims [of the Nazis].

The photo below shows a Holocaust monument in the same park where the new monument will be built, if the objections of nearby residents can be overcome.

Holocaust monument in Amsterdam designed by Dutch artist Jan Wolkers which reads "Never Again Auschwitz" in the Wertheim park in Amsterdam, Netherlands, Wednesday, June 18, 2014.

Holocaust monument in Amsterdam designed by Dutch artist Jan Wolkers which reads “Never Again Auschwitz” in the Wertheim park in Amsterdam (Click to enlarge)

One of the objections to the new memorial is that it is too big. Compared to the Holocaust memorial in the heart of Berlin, (shown in the photo below) the proposed Amsterdam monument is miniscule.

5 acres of concrete blocks in the heart of Berlin

5 acres of concrete blocks in the heart of Berlin

This quote is from another news article, which you can read in full here:

Although the Libeskind design has not yet been unveiled, the work will be called the “Holocaust Names Monument”– because it will feature the names of all 102,000 Dutch Jews, Roma and Sinti (an itinerant Romani people, originally from Central Europe) who perished in Hitler’s camps.

“In percentage terms, the Netherlands had the highest deportation rate in western Europe, but there is no monument to honour their memory as individuals,” said Jacques Grishaver, chairman of the Dutch Auschwitz Committee.

“Their names simply vanished into thin air, like the people. Now, for the first time, families will have a place to go and a name on a plaque to touch.”

Most of those deported from the Netherlands were routed through Westerbork, where enclosed trains left several times a week for the extermination camps at Auschwitz-Birkenau, Bergen-Belsen, Sobibór and Theresienstadt.

Between 1942 and 1945, more than 107,000 captives left Westerbork in 93 trains to Germany. Only 5,200 of them survived long enough to be liberated.

Note that the news article lumps Auschwitz-Birkeanu and Sobibór in with Bergen-Belsen, which was an exchange camp, and Theresienstadt, which was a camp for “prominent Jews.”  No matter where the Jews in Amsterdam were sent, they would up in an extermination camp, and were never seen again.  What could have happened to them?  They were all exterminated, of course.

I previously blogged about the 34,000 Jews who were sent, from Amsterdam, to Sobibór at

I also blogged about the Dutch Jew on this blog post:

Allegedly, there were Dutch Jews, who were sent to the Sachsenhausen camp and gassed. I wrote about this on this blog post:

I blogged about the atrocities, committed against the Dutch Jews on this blog post:

According to the stories told by the Dutch survivors, the Dutch Jews were treated worse than any of the Jews from other countries.

May 19, 2011

Finally, Dutch Jews get justice, long delayed

Filed under: Germany, Holocaust — Tags: , , — furtherglory @ 10:51 am

According to the latest news about John Demjanjuk, which you can read here, “Families of Jews who were slaughtered in Sorbibor death camp said Saturday they were pleased with the conviction of John Demjanjuk, who was sentenced to five years in prison Thursday for his role in the killing of 27,900 Jews as a guard at the Nazi camp.”

Jews from many countries were sent to Sobibor to be “slaughtered.”  When will their relatives get justice?  Why were only Dutch Jews included as co-plaintiffs in the prosecution of Demjanjuk?    (more…)

March 18, 2011

Dutch Jews killed at Mauthausen Concentration camp

Filed under: Buchenwald, Dachau, Germany, Holocaust — Tags: , , — furtherglory @ 11:52 am

The murder of Dutch Jews during the Holocaust has been in the news a lot lately due to the trial of John Demjanjuk in Germany.  I decided to do a little research on this subject and came across a blog titled “Inconvenient History” which I have read many times in the past. I love this blog because the articles are so erudite, not like my dumb blog posts.  I especially love the name: Inconvenient History.

This blog post on the “Inconvenient History” blog is about the speeches of German writer Thomas Mann on the BBC during World War II; it mentions Dutch Jews who were allegedly gassed at the Mauthausen concentration camp, according to Mann.

Here is a quote from the article on the blog “Inconvenient History”:

Two months later, in the speech from January 1942, Mann had an astounding tale to tell his listeners:

”The news sounds implausible, but my source is good. In numerous Dutch-Jewish families in Amsterdam and other cities, so I have been informed, one mourns deeply for sons, who have suffered a horrible death. Four hundred young Dutch Jews were brought to Germany to be used as guinea pigs for poison gas. The virulence of this chivalrous and through and through German weapon of war, a true weapon of Siegfried, has proven itself against the young subhumans. They are dead, dead for the sake of the New Order and the military ingeniosity of the Master Race. At least for that they were good enough. After all, they were Jews.”[5]

A bit later in the text Mann refers to the above alleged event as ”the trial gassing [Probevergasung] of four hundred young Jews”.[6]

In his speech from June 1942 Mann returned to the subject of the gassed Dutch Jews:

”In one of my earlier broadcasts I made myself guilty of a regrettable mitigation of the truth. I spoke of Nazi atrocities and mentioned that 400 young Dutchmen of Jewish blood had been brought to German to be killed with poison gas. Now I hear via indirect channels from Holland, that the number of victims mentioned by me was nearly half that of the actual figure. It was almost 800 people who were arrested at that time, brought to Mauthausen and gassed there. The exact figure has meanwhile been published by the Dutch government [in exile?], but since I do not believe that this report has yet reached you, I do well to pass on to you this privately received information.”[7]

Mauthausen and the nearby Gusen camp had been designated, in January 1941, as the only Class III camps in the Nazi system. Later, Gusen became a sub-camp of Mauthausen. Dachau and Sachsenhausen were designated as Class I camps and Buchenwald became a Class II camp.

The Class III designation meant that Mauthausen was the worst camp in the Nazi concentration camp system; it was a punishment camp for resistance fighters who had been accused of sabotage, and for Allied POWs who were categorized as spies or commandos, Russian POWs who had previously escaped, and German criminals who had been condemned to death.  As the worst of the concentration camps, Mauthausen also became the source of the worst atrocity stories told by the Allies, including the stories about the Dutch Jews.  I previously blogged about stories told by a Dutch survivor here.

I visited the Mauthausen Memorial Site several years ago after doing a lot of research about the camp. I learned that, from 1941 to 1943, there were around 1,350 Dutch Jews who had been brought to Mauthausen because they were accused of resistance activities during the Nazi occupation. The first to arrive were 361 Jews from Amsterdam who had been transferred from Buchenwald to Mauthausen after it became a Class III camp in 1941. These Dutch Jews were from the group of 425 young men who had been arrested in the Jewish quarter of Amsterdam in reprisal for what the Nazis considered an act of resistance on February 19, 1941 when German occupation soldiers were sprayed with ammonia in a tavern, which was run by Ernst Cahn, a Jewish refugee from Germany. In his book entitled Holocaust, Martin Gilbert claimed that the alleged attack was accidental.

In June 1941, there had been more arrests of Jews in Amsterdam after an explosion, caused by the Dutch Resistance, in a villa where German Army officers were living.

Here is another quote from the “Inconvenient History” blog:

The reality behind this allegation is described by Raul Hilberg as follows: In early February 1941 German Security Police men were attacked by Jewish members of the resistance. On 25 February the Higher SS and Police Leader Rauter proclaimed that 400 Jews in the age group 20-35 had been sent to a German concentration camp. A total of 389 youths were in fact sent to Buchenwald, where a tenth of them perished in the next months. The survivors were sent on to Mauthausen. In June another 291 Amsterdam Jews were sent there directly. The Dutch Jews in Mauthausen were set to carry out heavy work in a stone quarry, and many who did not perish from exhaustion or illness reportedly committed suicide. Following concentration camp routine, the Mauthausen command sent death notices to the families of the deceased.[8] No Holocaust historian has ever asserted that the Dutch Jews deported to Mauthausen in 1941, or even part of them, were killed with poison gas. According to the foremost defender of the Mauthausen gas chamber legend, Hans Marsalek, the alleged homicidal gas chamber of that camp was not put in operation before May 1942, and of the either 526 or 726 victims supposedly gassed (on a total of five occasions) up until 9 September 1944, all were either Soviet, Czech or Polish citizens.[9] Thus none of the approximately 640 Dutch Jews sent to Mauthausen in 1941 could have been gassed there, even from an exterminationist viewpoint.

Note that this quote from Raul Hilberg mentions that the Dutch Jews, who were sent to work in the quarry at Mauthausen, “committed suicide.”  This contradicts one of the favorite atrocity stories about Mauthausen, which is that the Dutch Jews were forced to jump off a cliff by the German guards, who jokingly called this “parachuting.”

Robert Abzug wrote about this allegation in his book entitled Inside the Vicious Heart. According to Abzug, hundreds of Dutch Jews were forced to jump to their deaths from the high cliff overlooking the quarry floor.

However, Martin Gilbert wrote the following in his book Holocaust:

On the third day after the arrival of the Dutch deportees at Mauthausen, the camp guards began machine-gunning the climbers on the steps. On the fourth day, some ten young Jews linked hands and jumped to voluntary death.

The ledge from which Dutch Jews jumped at Mauthausen

Note the pool of water below the cliff.  One of the stories is that some of the Dutch Jews survived and were forced by the German guards to jump off the cliff again.

So were the Dutch Jews pushed, or did they jump off the cliff to commit suicide?  If you live in the Netherlands, it would be better to go with the story that the Jews were pushed off the cliff.  The Jews in the Netherlands are cracking down on Holocaust denial, according to this news story.