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February 27, 2014

The law under which Franz Suchomel was convicted of a “war crime” committed at Treblinka

Filed under: Germany, Holocaust, World War II — Tags: , , — furtherglory @ 12:50 pm

A couple of days ago, I blogged about Franz Suchomlel at https://furtherglory.wordpress.com/2014/02/25/proof-of-the-treblinka-gas-chambers-found-in-the-trial-testimony-of-franz-suchomel-a-junior-ss-guard-at-the-camp/

Today, I am going to expand upon the ex-post-facto law under which Suchomel was convicted and sentenced to six years in prison by a German District Court in Düsseldorf in 1965.

Ex-post-facto means “after the fact.” The law, under which Suchomel and many others were convicted, was not in existence during the time that Franz Suchomel allegedly committed a war crime.

The photo below shows Friedrich Weitzel (#40), a low level SS man who was a supply clerk at Dachau.  He was convicted under the same ex-post-facto law as Franz Suchomel, whose job at Treblinka was about as important as the work done by Weitzel at Dachau.

Friedrich Weitzel is sentenced to prison after his conviction, based on the  new law of "common design.

Friedrich Weitzel is sentenced to prison after his conviction by the American Military Tribunal, under the new law of “common design.”

This quote, regarding the trial of Franz Suchomel, is from Wikipedia:

Twenty years after the end of [World War II], in the framework of first official investigations into war crimes at the Treblinka extermination camp, German authorities collected evidence of Suchomel’s participation in the Holocaust. He was arrested on 11 July 1963.[5] The Treblinka trials took place from 12 October 1964 until 3 September 1965 against ten defendants before the 3rd District Court of Düsseldorf. The charges consisted of the murder of at least 700,000 mainly Jewish people in the gas chambers, as well as deadly assault, shootings, and hangings of individual prisoners. Suchomel was convicted of accessory to murder and sentenced to six years in jail.[4] Suchomel was released from prison on 20 December 1967.[1]

The law, under which Suchomel was convicted, was called “common design” or “common plan.”

According to Robert E. Conot, who wrote a book entitled Justice at Nuremberg, the idea of a law called “common design” was originated by Lt. Col. Murray C. Bernays, a Lithuanian Jew who had emigrated with his family to America in 1900 at the age of six.

Henry Morgenthau, Jr., a Jew who was the Secretary of the Treasury and one of President Franklin Roosevelt’s top advisers, had proposed that the German war criminals should be charged and then executed without a trial. But Bernays said, “Not to try these beasts would be to miss the educational and therapeutic opportunity of our generation. They must be tried not alone for their specific aims, but for the bestiality from which these crimes sprang.”

According to Robert E. Conot’s book, the idea of bringing the German war criminals to justice was first voiced by President Franklin D. Roosevelt on October 7, 1942, when he declared: “It is our intention that just and sure punishment shall be meted out to the ringleaders responsible for the organized murder of thousands of innocent persons in the commission of atrocities which have violated every tenet of the Christian faith.”

Roosevelt was referring to atrocities allegedly committed in the concentration camps, beginning with Dachau in 1933. Most of the war crimes, that were prosecuted in 1945 at the Nuremberg IMT, and at the American Military Tribunal at Dachau, had not yet been committed.

The British also conducted trials, based on ex-post-facto laws.

The Declaration of St. James, on January 13, 1942, announced British plans for war crimes trials even before the British BBC first broadcast the news of the gassing of the Jews in June 1942.

On December 17, 1942, British Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden told the House of Commons: “The German authorities are now carrying into effect Hitler’s oft repeated intention to exterminate the Jewish people of Europe.”

On October 26, 1943, the United Nations War Crimes Commission, composed of 15 Allied nations, met in London to discuss the trials of the German war criminals which were already being planned. That same year, Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin issued a joint statement, called the Moscow Declaration, in which they agreed to bring the German war criminals to justice.

Even before the start of the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg and the American Military Tribunal at Dachau, the first trial of German war criminals in the U.S. zone of Germany was held between October 8 and October 15, 1945 when staff members of Hadamar, a clinic near Limberg, Germany, were put on trial.

The following quote is from the web site of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum:

The 1945 Hadamar Trial (October 8-15, 1945) was the first mass atrocity trial in the U.S. zone of Germany following World War II.

On August 8, 1945, the Allies signed the London Charter which gave each of the four great powers (Great Britain, France, the Soviet Union and the USA) jurisdiction over the camp personnel in the concentration camps located in their respective zones of occupation. The London Charter was also the basis for the International Military Tribunal to try the major German war criminals at Nuremberg.

Even before the war was over, the first Allied war crimes trial had taken place in Poland when the camp personnel of the Majdanek concentration camp were tried by the Soviet Union.  The defendants in this trial were charged with the murder of 1.5 million prisoners at Majdanek.  Now the number of deaths at Majdanek has been reduced to 78,000, including 59,000 Jews.

The British, who had liberated Bergen-Belsen after Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler voluntarily turned the camp over to them on April 15, 1945, held the first post-war military tribunal for concentration camp personnel in September 1945 at Lüneberg, Germany.

Immediately following the liberation of Majdanek on July 23, 1944, the former concentration camp, for political prisoners and Jews, was turned into a camp for captured German soldiers and a few of the former guards and administrative personnel, who were then quickly tried and convicted as war criminals.  America followed this same plan. After the typhus epidemic in the Dachau concentration camp was brought under control in June 1945, the former camp was turned into a prison for German war criminals who were awaiting trial by the American Military Tribunal.

The war crimes office at Dachau

The war crimes office at Dachau

The German defendants at the American Military Tribunal were not allowed access to the records, which were confiscated by the Americans as evidence in the Dachau trials.

Altogether, there were 5 proceedings against groups of concentration camp staff members at the American Military Tribunal at Dachau. In the first four of those cases, 177 staff members of Dachau, Buchenwald, Mauthausen and Flossenbürg were charged, and all of the accused, without exception, were convicted by a panel of American military officers.

The 100% conviction rate, at the American Military Tribunal, was due to the fact that it was the concentration camp system that was on trial; there was literally no defense for the accused because it could not be denied that the concentration camp system was inherently evil and that everyone in a position of authority in any of the camps was part of that system.

The man who is standing is a former inmate of Dachau who is pointing out xxx, who was the supply clerk for the camp

The man, who is standing, is a former inmate of Dachau who is pointing out Friedrich Weitzel (#40), who was the supply clerk for the Dachau concentration camp

Friedrich Weitzel, who is shown in the photo above, was convicted of participating in the “common design” at the Dachau concentration camp because he was the “supply clerk” for the camp.  There was no defense against the “common design” ex-post-facto law

In 1945, there was no German law, nor any international law, that covered any atrocities, that might have been committed in the camps, nor the genocide of the Jews. New laws had been made after these crimes had been allegedly committed.

Col. Robert Jackson, the chief prosecutor of the Nuremberg IMT, said in his opening address: “Hence I am not disturbed by the lack of precedent for the inquiry we propose to conduct.”

Under the new concept of “common design,” organizations, as well as individuals, could be charged with war crimes and membership in an organization was enough to convict an individual of a war crime, whether or not that person committed any acts himself.

At the American Military Tribunal proceedings, the “common design” theory meant that individuals were guilty of crimes committed by others on the staff of a concentration camp even if they didn’t serve at the same time. It didn’t matter whether or not the crimes allegedly committed by others in a particular concentration camp had ever been proved in a court of law or by a military tribunal; staff members of that camp were presumed to be guilty of these crimes, and they had no defense.

Crimes against Humanity was another new concept which did not exist before the Nuremberg International Military Tribunal began. This new law, which was one of the four categories of crimes described by Allied Control Council Law No. 10, was enacted after the end of World War II. It covered brutalities, cruelties, tortures, atrocities and other inhumane acts, including the murder of six million Jews in the Nazi camps. Some of the top-level war criminals at the Nuremberg IMT were charged with Crimes against Humanity, but this charge was not used in the proceedings against the concentration camp personnel who were tried by the American Military Tribunal at Dachau.

It was not until 1948 that the newly-created United Nations announced a law against genocide. With no existing laws in place, the Allies had created new international laws in order to convict and punish those who were presumed to be guilty.

During the trials conducted by the Nuremberg IMT and the American Military Tribunal, the prosecution had only to prove that the accused had participated in a common plan by virtue of his position on the staff of a concentration camp, whether or not he had personally committed any atrocities. The accused in these trials were not charged with committing any specific crime, but rather with aiding and abetting the commission of crimes in the concentration camp system which was designated by the Allies to be a criminal enterprise.

The basis for the “common plan” theory of guilt was Article II, paragraph 2 of Law Order No. 10 which stated as follows:

2. Any person without regard to nationality or the capacity in which he acted, is deemed to have committed a crime as defined in paragraph 1 of this Article, if he was (a) a principal or (b) was an accessory to the commission of any such crime or ordered or abetted the same or (c) took a consenting part therein or (d) was connected with plans or enterprises involving its commission or (e) was a member of any organization or group connected with the commission of any such crime or (f) with reference to paragraph 1 (a), if he held a high political, civil or military (including General Staff) position in Germany or in one of its Allies, co-belligerents or satellites or held high position in the financial, industrial or economic life of any such country.

February 26, 2014

Franz Suchomel’s interview for Claude Lanzman’s documentary entitled Shoah

Filed under: Germany, Holocaust — Tags: , , , , — furtherglory @ 11:02 am

Franz Suchomel’s interview with Claude Lanzman, for his documentary entitled Shoah, is shown in seven Youtube videos.  There is also a YouTube video entitled “The Treblinka Death Camp — Former SS member confesses” which you can view at the end of this blog post.

Did SS man Franz Suchoml actually confess to the existence of gas chambers at Treblinka?  Yes.  He said, in his interview with Lanzman, that he “heard the motors” of the gas chamber.

The gas chambers at Treblinka had motors?  Oh, how I wish that gas chamber expert Fred Leuchter would come out of hiding and explain how the motors in a gas chamber worked.

The photo below shows the inside of a real gas chamber in Jefferson City, MO.  Fred Leuchter was a consultant for this gas chamber, years ago.  Maybe there are motors underneath the seats, which somehow heated the Zyklon-B lethal gas.

Inside the gas chamber in Jefferson City, MO

Inside the gas chamber in Jefferson City, MO

Strangely, Franz Suchomel did not say anything about the bodies being removed from the gas chamber after the victims had been gassed.

According to Suchomel’s description of Treblinka in his interview, there were 500 to 600 Jews in the “Blue Squad” who helped “3 to 5 Germans” with the gassing procedure.  The Jews in the Blue Squad had been promised that they would live, if they helped to herd the Jews through “the funnel” into the gas chamber. But this was a lie, according to Suchomel.

In his interview, Suchomel said that the Jews in the Blue Squad were “not shot or gassed.”  They were starved to death, and at the end, “a typhus epidemic broke out” at Treblinka, which killed the Jews in the Blue Squad.

In his confession, Suchomel described how the Jewish men were driven into the gas chamber first, while the women had to wait, for a long time in the freezing cold, for their turn.  How the gas chamber was emptied, after each group of men had been gassed, Suchomel didn’t say.

At one point in the interview, Suchomel said (regarding how the women died in the gas chamber) “I didn’t see it.”

What Suchomel did say, in his interview, was “That’s how they were finished off.”  This implies that the Jews were gassed, although he had not actually witnessed the death of the Jews in the alleged gas chambers.

According to the latest estimate, there were 900,000 Jews gassed at Treblinka; this would have taken a long time, because it was so cold when the gassing took place. (The Zyklon-B gas had to be heated to 78.3 degrees Fahrenheit.)  Suchomel was very emphatic about the freezing weather — he mentioned that even the SS men suffered because their uniforms were not adequate.

At one point in his so-called confession, Suchomel said that “…on the roof  (of the gas chamber) were the hell hounds.”  He explained that the “hell hounds” were the Ukrainian helpers at Treblinka.  This implies that there were holes in the roof, through which the Zyklon-B pellets were poured into the gas chambers.  Maybe the “motors” that Suchomel heard were heating the Zyklon-B to the proper temperature to activate the gas.  This would have taken some time, since the weather was below zero when the gassing took place. Or maybe the “motors” were for the tanks that were used to generate carbon monoxide.

In his interview, Suchomel spoke German in a way that I could understand; he did not speak in a German dialect, as many Germans do.  He mentioned that the Treblinka camp was shaped like a rhombus. This indicates to me that he was at least somewhat educated.

The video that includes his confession starts off by showing old trains, that were like the trains that took the Jews to Treblinka. The village of Treblinka was shown.  The village was very small, as shown in my 1998 photo below.

The small village of Treblinka

The small village of Treblinka

Then the Malkinia Bahnhof (train station) was shown.

Malkinia train station was 7 miles from the Treblinka camp

Suchomel said the Malkinia train station was 7 miles from the Treblinka camp

In his so-called confession, Suchomel never explained why the remote location of the Treblinka camp was selected.  I explained this in a previous blog post at https://furtherglory.wordpress.com/2011/10/07/malkinia-junction-where-the-trains-to-treblinka-stopped/

You can watch Suchomel’s confession on the video below.

February 25, 2014

Proof of the Treblinka gas chambers found in the trial testimony of Franz Suchomel, a junior SS guard at the camp

Filed under: Germany, Holocaust — Tags: , , , , , — furtherglory @ 10:28 am
Entrance into former Treblinka camp in1998

My 1998 photo of the entrance into former Treblinka camp, which was way out in the boondocks in what is now the country of Poland

Today, I am responding to a comment, about the Treblinka camp, made by a reader of my blog.  At the very end of this reader’s comment was this sentence:

“Please gentleman a little common sense here!”

O.K. I am going to attempt to provide a little common sense, so bear with me.

Franz Suchomel was a junior SS guard at Treblinka

Franz Suchomel was a junior SS guard at Treblinka

This quote is from Wikipedia:

Franz Suchomel (3 December 1907 – 18 December 1979)[1] was a Sudeten German Nazi and Unterscharführer (junior sergeant) in the SS. During World War II he participated in the Action T4 euthanasia program, in Operation Reinhard, and the Einsatzgruppen actions in the Adriatic operational zone. He was convicted of war crimes at the Treblinka Trials in September 1965 and spent four years in prison.

The comment, to which I am responding on my blog, was about the confession of Franz Suchomel, a low level SS guard at the Treblinka camp, who gave an interview for Claude Lanzman’s documentary entitled Shoah.

Franz Suchomel was convicted in a trial, conducted by the German government in 1965, twenty years after the end of World War II.

According to Wikipedia, “Suchomel was convicted of accessory to murder and sentenced to six years in jail.[4] Suchomel was released from prison on 20 December 1967.[1]”

Was there a war crime, called “accessory to murder” during World War II?  No, but there was an ex-post-facto law, called “common design” or “common plan” which was used during the Nuremberg International Military Tribunal.  According to this ex-post-facto law, if you were anywhere near a Nazi concentration camp, you were guilty of a crime.  The law of “common plan” was also used by the American Military Tribunal in the war crimes trials conducted at Dachau after World War II.

This quote is from the comment made by the reader of my blog:

[Franz Suchomel] An Officer of the SS, who was already tried and convicted for his duty at Treblinka (so to speak), who served time – would never-the-less give an interview with a private individual (e.g. non governmental/non-police) [Claude Lanzman] who was advancing a record that was totally untrue (e.g. Treblinka was a death camp); whereby this individual would then make up extremely specific details related to the operation of the [Treblinka] camp as he remembered them in the capacity as a Jr. SS Officer.

Think about it (assuming your assumption), you [Suchomel]  just spent 4 years of your life in a jail for a crime that simply did not exist, so you get out of jail, and then 8 or 9 years later as an old man you decide, heck let me speak to this French Jew [Lanzman] and tell him all the details about a death camp operation that I was convicted for, served time for being involved in the operation, but [it] really never happened. Most people who get accused of something they didn’t do, don’t go around making up stories about what they witnessed at the event that never happened.

Even if the trial (where the decisions were handed out by non-Jewish Germans- not Americans), you would think that Mr. Suchomel or one of the co-defendants would have gotten up and said, what the h** are you talking about there was no Treblinka death camp! If there was no camp you would think that some of the individuals would have used the defense, there was no such camp. No the defenses in most of the trials is that yes it happened but I was just a soldier following orders…. I wasn’t in charge… someone else who was in charge (a point Mr. Suchomel gets defensive about during his interview [with Lanzman], when he reminds the interviewer that the interview is not about him but about what he saw [at Treblinka].)

So why DID Franz Suchomel give an interview to Claude Lanzman?  Take a look at his photo at the top of my blog post.  Franz looks like a simple man, and a man who would not hurt a fly.  He was trying to be polite, when he was asked by Lanzman to give an interview.

Note that Wikipedia mentions that Suchomel was a Sudeten German. The Sudeten Germans were originally from Austria, and they migrated to the Sudetenland in the 1500s.  So he was from the same ethnic group of Germans as Hitler, Kaltenbrunner, and many other top level Nazis. This is all the more reason that he would have been loyal to the Nazi government, and not a traitor to his country.

According to the Wikipedia entry for Suchomel, “Franz Suchomel was secretly interviewed for the documentary film Shoah, directed by Claude Lanzmann and released in 1985. During the interview at a hotel in Braunau am Inn he provided details of Treblinka criminal operations.”

Notice where the SECRET interview took place: Braunau am Inn, the birthplace of Adolf Hitler.  Why was the interview secret and why did it take place at Braunau am Inn, which was not the residence of Franz Suchomel?

I am using my “common sense” here to say that this sounds suspicious to me.  The photo below shows that the Treblinka camp was located way out in the boondocks in what is now Poland.

Stone markers show where the Treblinka camp was located

Stone markers show the border of  the Treblinka camp, which was formerly located in what is now the country of Poland

As for the trial of Franz Suchomel, by the German government, if he had denied, during this trial, that there was a gas chamber at Treblinka, he would have been convicted of the crime of “Holocaust denial” under the laws of post-war Germany.

There was no defense against the ex-post-facto law known as “common plan.”  Suchomel could not deny that he was at Treblinka, and if he was there, he was guilty of a war crime, according to the ex-post-facto laws made up the Allies.

Memorial stones of basalt recreate pits where bodies were burned

Memorial stones of basalt recreate pits where 900,000 bodies were burned at the Treblinka camp

This interesting quote is also from Wikipedia:

“In March 1941 [Franz Suchomel] became a photographer at the Hadamar Euthanasia Centre in the Action T4 headquarters in Berlin, where he took photographs of euthanasia victims before their killing.”

Today, the euthanasia program at Hadamar is purported to be the killing of only slightly “disabled” people.  Suchomel had the job of taking photos of the people who were killed, in order to show that they were severely disabled, and not able to function. These photos are no longer shown anywhere on the Internet. Now we are required to believe that the Holocaust started with the killing of people who were able to function as normal healthy people.