Scrapbookpages Blog

May 18, 2016

It happened, therefore it can happen again….

Filed under: Germany, Holocaust — Tags: , , , — furtherglory @ 3:06 pm

 

Primo Levi as a young man

Primo Levi as a young man

The words, in the title of my blog post, were written by Primo Levi, a famous Holocaust survivor, who is shown in the photo above. He was a prisoner at the Monowitz camp, which was also known as the Auschwitz III camp.

Prisoners working at Monowitz

Prisoners working in Monowitz factory

You can read about the Monowitz camp on my website at : http://www.scrapbookpages.com/AuschwitzScrapbook/History/Articles/Monowitz.html

Primo Levi as an older man

famous Holocaust survivor Primo Levi

In my previous blog post, I wrote the following about Primo Levi:

Auschwitz was abandoned by the German SS guards on January 18, 1945 and it was ten days before Soviet troops arrived to rescue the prisoners.  Primo Levi was an Italian Jew, who was a prisoner at the Monowitz labor camp in the Auschwitz complex.  In 1947, Levi wrote a poem entitled “If this is a man,” which is included in a book published in America under the title Survival in Auschwitz, the Nazi Assault on Humanity.

Chapter 17 of the book is entitled, “The Story of Ten Days.”  This is the story of what happened during the ten days that the prisoners were on their own, without the Germans to keep order and feed them.  There are some surprising revelations in this chapter.

Primo Levi had come down with scarlet fever on January 11, 1945 and he had been put into the hospital at Monowitz, so he was not able to join the march out of the camp on January 18, 1945.  He wrote that he was being treated in the hospital with sulpha drugs.

There has been a lot of speculation about why some of the prisoners stayed in the three Auschwitz camps (Auschwitz I, Birkenau and Monowitz) instead of following the fleeing Germans on January 18, 1945. The Holocaust experts believe that the prisoners were marched out of the camp for the purpose of killing them so that they could not testify about the gassing of the prisoners.  They believe that the prisoners joined the march for fear that they would be killed if they stayed behind.

Levi wrote that there were “rumours which had been circulating for some days: that the Russians were at Censtochowa sixty miles to the north; […] that at Buna (Monowitz) the Germans were already preparing to sabotage mines.”

Strangely, Levi did not mention anything about the Germans blowing up the gas chambers at Birkenau.  Levi was a prisoner at Monowitz and perhaps he didn’t know what was going on at Birkenau.

In the “Author’s Preface” to the book, the first sentence reads: “It was my good fortune to be deported to Auschwitz only in 1944, that is, after the German Government had decided, owing to the growing scarcity of labour, to lengthen the average life-span of the prisoners destined for elimination…”  Primo Levi was never in the Birkenau camp, so he apparently never knew that 450,000 Hungarian Jews were gassed and burned there in only 10 weeks, starting in May 1944.

Levi had arrived in Auschwitz in January 1944.  He had been captured by the Italian Fascist Militia on 13 December 1943, according to his book. He  wrote that he had fled into the mountains to help set up what “should have become a partisan band affiliated with the Resistance movement Justice and Liberty.”  Levi thought that “the admission of my political activity would have meant torture and certain death.”  Remarkably, he wrote that he “preferred to admit my status of Italian citizen of Jewish race.”

So on the first page of Chapter 1 in his book, Levy reveals that he thought he would be killed if he admitted to being a partisan, but not if he admitted to being a Jew.  Yet on page 20, he wrote, with regard to the selections for the gas chamber, that “later a simpler method was often adopted of merely opening both of the doors of the wagon without warning or instructions to the new arrivals.  Those who by chance climbed down on one side of the convoy entered the camp; the others went to the gas chamber.”

Levi wrote in Chapter 17 that the day before the Monowitz camp was to be evacuated, a Greek doctor who was a prisoner himself came to the hospital and told the prisoners that “all patients able to walk would be given shoes and clothes and would leave the following day with the healthy ones on a twelve mile march.” The others would remain in the hospital with assistants to be chosen from the patients who were the least sick.  When Levi asked the doctor what would happen to the sick prisoners, the doctor said that “probably the Germans would leave us to our fate: no, he did not think that they would kill us.”

Read more at https://furtherglory.wordpress.com/2011/01/10/primo-levi-the-story-of-ten-days-jan-18th-to-jan-27th-1945/

February 12, 2016

Holocaust survivor was forced to stand in line 17 times for gas chamber selection

Filed under: Germany, Holocaust — Tags: , , — furtherglory @ 9:27 am
Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler inspects Monowitz, July 1942

Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler inspects Monowitz factories, accompanied by German engineers, July 1942

SiemansFactoryBrobrek

According to the news reports, some of the Jewish prisoners at Monowitz worked in the Siemens factory at Brobeck, which is shown in the photo directly above.  Reinhold Henning has been accused of mistreating these prisoners.

The following quote is from a news article which you can read in full at http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3444258/We-stand-naked-four-hours-decided-killed-Holocaust-survivor-reveals-horrors-Auschwitz-trial-SS-guard.html

A Holocaust survivor today told a court how he was forced to stand naked in line 17 times during his time at Auschwitz [Monowitz camp] while the Nazis decided who should be sent to the gas chambers.

Justin Sonder was one of three former prisoners who testified about the horrors they experienced at the trial of Reinhold Hanning [Henning], who is accused of helping to murder 170,000 Jews.

Justin was put through 17 selections at Monowitz

Justin Sonder was put through 17 selections at Monowitz

Hanning [Henning], 94, sat only a few metres from the witnesses, but showed no emotion as they spoke of crematoria chimneys belching flames and seeing people being shot.

Prosecutors say Hanning [Henning] told them that he was a guard at Auschwitz but denied taking part in any executions.

[…]

Mr Sonder, the youngest of the witnesses at 90, arrived at Auschwitz at age 17 and was selected to be a slave labourer for the IG Farben company [in the Monowitz camp], rather than sent directly to the gas chambers.

He told the court that after three or four months, he was considered one of the ‘older’ prisoners and feared most selection days, when SS men would look at rows of inmates, who were forced to stand in a line naked for up to four hours, and decide who was still fit to work and who should be killed.

‘I don’t have the words to describe how it was, when you know that you could be dead in one or two hours, it made you sick, made you crazy,’ he said, his voice trembling with emotion.

‘I survived 17 selections,’ added Sonder, a retired police officer from Chemnitz, who lost 22 family members in the Holocaust.

End quote

So why is Justin Sonder testifying against 94-year-old Reinhold Hanning? Did Henning make the selections at Monowitz, and decide who would live and who would die?

No, Henning did not make the selections, but he was there, so he is a war criminal, who deserves to spend his final years in prison because HE WAS THERE.

When will this madness stop?

Prisoners at work at Monowitz

Prisoners at work at Monowitz

You can read about the Monowitz camp on my website at http://www.scrapbookpages.com/AuschwitzScrapbook/History/Articles/Monowitz.html

 

August 28, 2015

The headline on the newspaper obituary of Dennis Avey contains the word “controversially”

Filed under: Holocaust, World War II — Tags: , — furtherglory @ 9:30 am

Is controversially even a word?  The story of Dennis Avey’s wartime experience, when he allegedly spent two nights in a concentration camp, is so controversial that it might have needed a new word to describe it.  I would have used the word “allegedly” in describing Avey’s alleged trip into the concentration camp at Monowitz, aka Auschwitz III.

Read the full story at http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/obituaries/11828297/Denis-Avey-Auschwitz-witness-obituary.html

Soldier who broke into Auschwitz...Handout photo issued by Hodder and Stoughton of Denis Avey, who along with former BBC Berlin correspondent Rob Broomby, has written 'The Man Who Broke Into Auschwitz', a new book which tells the story of how the 92-year-old, a former soldier, smuggled himself into Auschwitz twice, saving the life of a Jewish prisoner in the process. PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Issue date: Friday April 1, 2011. See PA story HISTORY Auschwitz. Photo credit should read: Dave Poole/Hodder and Stoughton/PA Wire

Handout photo of Dennis Avey issued by Hodder and Stoughton Photo credit: Dave Poole/Hodder and Stoughton/PA Wire

I have written several blog posts under the tag Dennis Avey: https://furtherglory.wordpress.com/tag/dennis-avey/

July 31, 2015

Dennis Avey, the man who allegedly broke into Auschwitz, has died

Filed under: Holocaust — Tags: , , — furtherglory @ 9:00 am
This photo of Dennis Avey accompanies the news article about his death

This photo of Dennis Avey accompanies the news article about his death

A news article, which you can read in full here, tells the story of Dennis Avey sneaking in the Monowitz camp, which was the Auschwitz III camp. At the time that he allegedly sneaked into the Nazi camp, Avey was a prisoner in a nearby POW camp, which you can read about on my website at http://www.scrapbookpages.com/AuschwitzScrapbook/History/Articles/MonowitzPOWs.html

Another news story, which you can read in full here, casts some doubt on Avey’s story.

I have written several blog posts about his claim that he broke into the Monowitz camp, which you can read at https://furtherglory.wordpress.com/tag/denis-avey/

October 29, 2013

Holocaust survivor Phil Gans is out selling “Erase the hate” bracelets

Filed under: Germany, Holocaust — Tags: , , , — furtherglory @ 1:23 pm

PhilGans

I previously blogged here about Philip L. Gans, who allegedly survived the Auschwitz III camp, aka Monowitz. In the photo above, Philip Gans is standing in front of a photo of the Arbeit Macht Frei sign at the Auschwitz main camp, although he claims that he was in the Auschwitz III camp. Did Monowitz have the Arbeit sign?  I blogged about that here.

Philip is now out on the lecture circuit, selling bracelets that say “Erase the hate.”  You can read about it in this news article.  You can read a biography of Phil Gans here.

This quote is from the news article, published today, in The Pilot Tribune:

[Gans and his relatives] were taken to a detention camp in Westerbork [Holland] which, Gans explained, was not bad at all.

A month later 1,001 people from the detention camp were crammed into a train car, used to transport cattle. No one knew where they were going.

Several days later, they arrived at Auschwitz, a slave labor camp. [Does he mean Auschwitz III, aka Monowitz? Auschwitz I and Auschwitz II were “death camps”.]

Off the train, the men and women were separated. From there they were separated into other lines – one for the able-bodied who the Nazis felt could be workers and another line, for those they did not feel could work, were led to the showers where they were gassed to death then cremated.

I never got to say good-bye to my mom…” Gans said, [whose mother] was put in the shower line.

Because of his age, 15, he was put into the working line.
[…]
Gans remained at Auschwitz from Aug. 27, 1943 to Jan. 18, 1945 and was then transferred to Flossenberg where he served from January 1945 until April 16, 1945.
[…]
It was April 23, 1945 that the American army stepped in and helped liberate the [Flossenbürg] prisoners. He will never forget that day or those [American] soldiers who were so kind to him.
[…]
“I’m committed to getting the message out there.” He has coined the phrase, “Erase the Hate,” and put them on silicone bracelets which he sells.

When I wrote my first blog post about Phil Gans, I was skeptical of his story because he claims that he was sent directly to the Auschwitz III camp (Monowitz) which was NOT on a train line.

Before the train tracks were extended inside the Auschwitz II camp, prisoners who were sent to Auschwitz arrived at the Judenrampe and were then taken to the Auschwitz II camp, aka Auschwitz-Birkenau, where they underwent a selection.  Those who were selected to work were then sent to Monowitz, after first being held in the quarantine barracks at Birkenau for a few weeks.

Phil was fortunate that he arrived at Auschwitz at the exact age of 15 because that was the cut off point for prisoners to be chosen to work.  Anne Frank, who was also sent from Westerbork to Auschwitz, was 15 when she arrived, so she was not sent to the gas chamber.

What about his tattoo number, which begins with the number one, and has no letter A or B in front of it?  That part is correct, according to the USHMM website.

This quote about the Flossenbürg camp is from Wikipedia:

On 20 April 1945, they began the forced evacuation of 22,000 inmates, including 1,700 Jews, leaving behind only those too sick to walk. On the death march to the Dachau concentration camp, SS guards shot any inmate too sick to keep up.[4] Before they reached Dachau, more than 7,000 inmates had been shot or had collapsed and died.

By the time the U.S. Army freed the camp on April 23, 1945, more than 30,000 inmates had died at Flossenbürg. Troops from the 2nd Cavalry Group, Mechanized,[5] the 90th Infantry Division and the 97th Infantry Division[6][7] found about 1,600 ill and weak prisoners, mostly in the camp’s hospital barracks.

Phil was again fortunate that he was too sick to join the march out of Flossenbürg, and he was liberated by American troops. Those who could march were taken to the Dachau camp.

The Holocaust story, told by Phil Gans, is just TOO CONVENIENT.  For example, this quote from the news article:

In August of 1942 Gans’ father was informed he was to report to Germany but rather than going, he put the family into hiding. The family moved around and were separated for several months.

It was during the night in July 1943 that Gans was awakened by footsteps in the gravel outside their home. They had been discovered by the Nazis who ordered them up and to get dressed.

It was necessary for the Gans family to go into hiding (just like Anne Frank’s family) so that Phil would be exactly 15 years old, the age of survival at Auschwitz.  Otherwise, he would have had to lie about his age during the selections, which were always done by Dr. Josef Mengele, according to the survivors.

There is a revisionist website with the title “Inconvenient History,” which you can read here. This website could be called “Real History,” except that David Irving already has that title.

There should be a Holocaust website called “Convenient History” where survivors, like Phil Gans, could tell their convenient stories.

April 5, 2013

Bobrek sub-camp of Auschwitz III camp, where prisoners worked as slave laborers

Filed under: Buchenwald, Holocaust — Tags: , , , — furtherglory @ 10:31 am

This morning, I read an article about Gilbert Michlin, a French Jewish prisoner, who survived the Holocaust because he was selected to be a slave laborer at the Bobrek sub-camp of Monowitz (Auschwitz III).

Main gate into the Bobrek sub-camp of Monowitz

Main gate into the Bobrek sub-camp of Monowitz

Prisoners working in the Bobrek factory

Prisoners working in the Bobrek factory

The photo above was taken in 1944 at the Bobrek sub-camp of Monowitz. It shows prisoners working in an airplane factory called Siemens Schuckert Werke. In the background, the man wearing a civilian suit is Herr Jungdorf, a German engineer for the Siemens company.

This quote is from the article about Gilbert Michlin, which you can read in full here:

In his memoir, Gilbert [Michlin] recalled French complicity in the deportation of Jews. He lovingly portrayed his father’s yearning to immigrate to America and his rejection at Ellis Island in 1923 [America had a quota on Jewish immigrants starting in 1921]; Gilbert’s own childhood dream to be an actor; and the shock of Nazi occupation and his arrest with his mother by French police at 2 a.m. on Feb. 3, 1944, two days before his 18th birthday.

A week later, Gilbert saw his mother for the last time as she was driven away from the Auschwitz platform in a truck.

It was at the [Auschwitz] death camp that a Siemens representative recruited Gilbert and about 100 others to a work unit. His father’s insistence that Gilbert learn a mechanical trade saved his life. Gilbert was selected for armaments production. Siemens kept its Bobrek factory prisoners together, even after the SS evacuated them in the death march from Auschwitz in January 1945. They were transferred together from Buchenwald to Berlin. A few months later, the war was over.

Note that, at the Auschwitz “death camp,” 18-year-old Gilbert Michlin was recruited by a Siemens representative for a work unit in the Bobrek sub-camp of Monowitz. This is the first time that I have ever heard of a Siemens rep recruiting workers at Auschwitz.  I thought that everyone who was transported to Auschwitz was at the mercy of  Dr. Josef Mengele who was always at the ramp when the trains arrived.  Was there a Siemen’s representative standing there as well, doing some recruiting for the Siemens company?

Prisoners arriving at Auschwitz-Birkenau had to undergo selection

Prisoners arriving at Auschwitz-Birkenau had to undergo selection, for work or the gas chamber

Monowitz was originally a sub-camp of the Auschwitz II (Birkenau) camp, and it was known as Bunalager (Buna Camp) until November 1943 when it became the Auschwitz III camp with its own administrative headquarters. Auschwitz III consisted of 28 sub-camps which were built between 1942 and 1944. This area of Upper Silesia was known as the “Black Triangle” because of its coal deposits. The Buna plant attracted the attention of the Allies, and there were several bombing raids on the factories.

Auschwitz III was established at the site of the chemical factories of IG Farbenindustrie near the small village of Monowitz, which was located four kilometers from the town of Auschwitz. The IG Farben company had independently selected this location around the same time that Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler decided, in April 1940, to locate a new concentration camp in the town of Auschwitz. The most important factory at Auschwitz III, aka Monowitz, was the Buna Werke, which was owned by the IG Farben company.

Of the three Nazi concentration camps located near the town of Auschwitz, the Auschwitz III camp was the most important to the Nazis because of its factories which were essential to the German war effort. The Monowitz industrial complex was built by Auschwitz inmates, beginning in April 1941. Initially, the workers walked from the Auschwitz main camp to the building site, a distance of seven kilometers.

The decision to build chemical factories at Auschwitz transformed the village of Monowitz. On February 2, 1941, Herman Göring ordered the Jews in the village to be relocated to a ghetto, and German civilians moved into their former homes.

When the factories at Monowitz were opened, the town of Auschwitz quickly went from a primitive town of 12,000 inhabitants to a modern German town of 40,000 people which included an influx of German engineers and their families. Both the main Auschwitz camp and the Birkenau camp were expanded in order to provide workers for the factories. Before Monowitz became a separate camp with barracks buildings, the prisoners had to walk from the other camps to the factories.

According to Wikipedia, the Bobrek sub-camp of Monowitz was built by Siemens predecessor Siemens-Schuckert near the Polish village of Bobrek. The prisoners who worked there were producing electrical parts for German aircraft and U-boats.  On January 18, 1945, the prisoners from the Bobrek sub-camp were evacuated on a “death march” to the concentration camp in Gleiwitz, Poland, where they were put on a train to Buchenwald, from where they were transferred to a factory in a suburb of Berlin.  The Commandant of the Bobrek camp was SS-Scharführer Hermann Buch.

Heinrich Himmler on a visit to the Monowitz camp, with German engineers

Heinrich Himmler and Max Faust inspect the Monowitz camp

The photo above shows Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler, a five-star general, (2nd from the left) who was the head of the SS and the man who was responsible for all the Nazi concentration camps. The man on the far left is Max Faust. This photo was taken when Himmler came to inspect the Monowitz factories on July 17th and 18th, 1942. Himmler is the man wearing a uniform. The two men on the right are German engineers.

The German engineers lived in the town of Auschwitz, after it was cleaned up to meet German standards of living. Slave labor was used to make improvements to the town, after Himmler volunteered the services of the concentration camp inmates.

The Jews who were sent to Auschwitz, and then assigned to work at Monowitz, had a much better chance of survival because the factory workers were considered too valuable to send to the gas chambers, at least while they were still able to work.
The figures below are from the Nazi records which were turned over to the Red Cross by the Soviet Union after the fall of Communism. They were published in a book written by Danuta Czech.

Male prisoners in Auschwitz III Monowitz (Buna-Werke) 10,223
Golleschau 1,008
Jawischowitz (Jawiszowice) 1,988
Eintrachthutte (Swietochlowice) 1,297
Neu-Dachs (Jaworzno) 3,664
Blechhammer (Blachownia) 3,958
Furstengrube (Wesola) 1,283
Gute Hoffnung (Janinagrube, Libiaz) 853
Guntergrube (Ledziny) 586
Brunn (Brno) 36
Gleiwitz I 1,336
Gleiwitz II 740
Gleiwitz III 609
Gleiwitz IV 444
Laurahutte (Siemianowice) 937
Sosnowitz 863
Bobrek 213
Trzebinia 641
Althammer (Stara Kuznia) 486
Tschechowitz-Dzieditz 561
Charlottengrube (Rydultowy) 833
Hindenburg (Zabrze) 70
Bismarckhutte (Hajduki) 192
Hubertushutte (Lagiewniki) 202
Subtotal 33,023

Female prisoners in Auschwitz III

Subtotal 2,095

Total for Auschwitz III: 35,118

Note that there were 213 survivors of the Bobrek sub-camp.

May 14, 2012

Richard Baer is the latest Auschwitz SS man to be demonized —- in a fictional play “The Beekeeper”

Filed under: Holocaust — Tags: , , , — furtherglory @ 8:42 pm

Everyone knows the names Dr. Josef Mengele and Rudolf Hoess, the evil monsters of Auschwitz.  Their names are household words.  Not so well known is the name Richard Baer.

Richard Baer, Dr. Josef Mengele, Rudolf Hoess

Now Richard Baer is the subject of a play about the Holocaust called The Beekeeper.  The play is about Richard Baer, the Commandant of Monowitz (Auschwitz III) and a prisoner named Stressler who is a beekeeper.  This is a play based on a true story, meaning that the play is NOT a true story.  Richard Baer never worked at Monowitz. The play is about one of those events that didn’t happen, but are true, as Elie Wiesel famously said.

This quote is from an article about the play, which you can read in full here:

Whilst the horrific events of the mid-20th century’s Holocaust are incredibly well-documented, I am sure I am not alone in being saddened and disgusted whenever I am served a reminder of the sheer humiliation and cruelty one set of human beings became capable of bestowing on another. This is, of course, what The Beekeeper is all about and the play does not fail to hit hard; it’s an intense and thought-provoking 90 minutes.

However, the slant is somewhat different to what we are accustomed to seeing and reading. In the writer’s own words there are no “bodies being fed into furnaces and whips cracking”. Instead, the spotlight is firmly on a single corner of the camp where the prisoner Stressler resides in isolation. Believed to be a conspirator by the other prisoners, he tenderly nurtures a hive of bees which serves not only as a distraction from his miserable, pain-filled existence but as a supply of honey for Nazi officers, in particular one Richard Baer.

On May 5, 1944, Richard Baer became the last Commandant of the Auschwitz main camp. He was only in charge of the Auschwitz main camp, not the whole Auschwitz complex. Richard Baer never worked at the Auschwitz III camp, aka Monowitz, in any capacity. In January 1945, Baer replaced Otto Förschner as the Commandant of Mittelbau-Dora, the concentration camp in Germany where the V-2 rockets were built.

After the war, Richard Baer went into hiding under an assumed name while he worked as a lumberjack in a remote area in Germany. He was finally tracked down and arrested in 1960, soon after Adolf Eichmann was captured in Argentina. Baer was asked to give a deposition which was entered into the trial of Eichmann in Israel. Baer was awaiting his own trial in the Auschwitz case in Frankfurt when he mysteriously died in prison just before the trial began in June 1963. Under interrogation, Baer had stubbornly refused to admit to the gassing of prisoners at Auschwitz.

This quote is from Wikipedia:

Richard Baer (September 9, 1911 – June 17, 1963) was a German Nazi official with the rank of SS-Sturmbannführer (major) and commander of the Auschwitz I concentration camp from May 1944 to February 1945. He was a member of N.S.D.A.P. (no. 454991) and the SS (no. 44225).

From November 1943 until the end of 1944 Fritz Hartjenstein and Josef Kramer were responsible for the extermination camp Auschwitz II, Birkenau, so that Baer was only Commandant of this part of the camp from the end of 1944 until January 1945. Near the end of the war Richard Baer, having replaced Otto Förschner as commandant of the Dora-Mittelbau camp in Thuringia Nordhausen, was responsible for the execution of Russian prisoners at mass gallows. His final rank was SS-Sturmbannführer (Major).

At the end of the war, Baer fled and lived near Hamburg as Karl Egon Neumann, a forestry worker. In the course of investigation in the Frankfurt Auschwitz Trials a warrant for his arrest was issued in October 1960 and his photograph was printed in newspapers. He was recognized by a co-worker and arrested in December 1960 after Adolf Eichmann’s arrest. On the advice of his lawyer he refused to testify and died of a heart attack in pre-trial detention in 1963.

What would cause a man to die of a heart attack at the age of 52?  Was the heart attack caused by torture during his interrogation? Or by poison?  You can read all about Richard Baer and his untimely death on the website of Carlos Whitlock Porter here.

January 24, 2012

the alleged “Arbeit Macht Frei” sign at Auschwitz III, aka Monowitz

Filed under: Holocaust — Tags: , , , — furtherglory @ 11:04 am

The question of the alleged Arbeit Macht Frei sign at the Monowitz (Auschwitz III) camp came up in a recent comment on my blog.  As proof that this sign taunted the prisoners in the Monowitz camp, as well as in other Nazi camps, we have the eye-witness account written by Primo Levi, who was a prisoner at Monowitz.  I previously blogged about Primo Levi here, but I didn’t include the information that Levi mentioned the sign on page 22 of the book Survival in Auschwitz, the Nazi Assault on Humanity.

On page 19, Levi wrote this about his arrival at Auschwitz on a transport train:  “A vast platform appeared before us, lit up by reflectors.”  This is a reference to the Judenrampe, which was a large train platform, near the Birkenau camp, which was used from 1942 to May 1944. The Judenrampe was torn down when the train tracks were extended inside the Birkenau death camp, so that the prisoners could be brought to a spot within a few feet of the gas chambers in Krema II and Krema III.  (God forbid that the Jews should have to walk to the gas chambers.)

Levi’s description of his arrival at Monowitz begins on page 22:

The journey [to Monowitz from the Judenrampe] did not last more than twenty minutes.  Then the lorry [truck] stopped and we saw a large door, and above it a sign, brightly illuminated (its memory still strikes me in my dreams): Arbeit Macht Frei, work gives freedom.

We climb down, they make us enter an enormous empty room that is poorly heated.

So the sign was on a DOOR, not a gate.  It was the door to an enormous empty ROOM, not the door into a camp.  Note that he not only saw the sign on the door, he also saw it in his dreams.

Denis Avey also mentioned an Arbeit Macht Frei sign at Monowitz in his book The Man Who Broke into Auschwitz. On page 140, Avey describes the scene when he entered the Monowitz prison camp:

It was still light when we passed through the gate and I saw the sign bearing the cruel promise ‘Arbeit Macht Frei’ — work sets you free.

I didn’t know that the irony of those words would scream across the decades. This was Auschwitz III–Monowitz.

Note that the sign that Denis Avey saw was on a GATE, not a door.

Rob Broomby co-wrote Denis Avey’s book.  On page 235, we learn that Rob questioned whether this sign was actually on the Monowitz gate.

This quote, written by Denis Avey, is from page 235 of the American edition of his book:

As Rob’s research continued it threw up some interesting questions about the nature of memory. He kept asking me if I was certain I had seen that Arbeit Macht Frei sign at the gates to Auschwitz III–Monowitz.  I was, but he said some experts had questioned it and nothing survives at the site today to testify one way or the other. The sign everyone knows these days is at the gates of the main camp, Auschwitz I. After more than sixty years it is that one which is emblazoned on the collective memory although many camps had them. Rob said the most influential account of life in the camp — that of survivor and writer Primo Levi — mentioned the sign at Auschwitz III more than once but the head of Research at Auschwitz wasn’t convinced.

So was there an Arbeit macht Frei sign at Monowitz or not?  I would say NOT.  Primo Levi saw the sign in his dreams, and Denis Avey read about it in Primo Levi’s book.  The Arbeit Macht Frei sign was used on the gates of the Nazi camps that were classified as Class I camps. Auschwitz I was a Class I camp and it had the sign.  Monowitz was a labor camp which probably did not have the sign.  I explained all this on a previous post which you can read here.

July 3, 2011

Book Report: The Man Who Broke into Auschwitz

I have just finished reading Denis Avey’s book The Man Who Broke into Auschwitz and I now believe that he might have actually stayed for two nights in the Jewish barracks at the prison camp called Auschwitz III, aka Monowitz.  However, the title of his book should be “The Man Who Allegedly Slept Two Nights in Monowitz.”  He didn’t break into Auschwitz, but he could have sneaked into the Jewish barracks at the Auschwitz III prison camp which was just outside the southern border of the huge Monowitz factory site.

Monowitz factories where Denis Avey worked

The Buna Werke near the village of Monowitz was a huge factory complex for making synthetic rubber; it was built in May 1942, six kilometers from the main Auschwitz camp, by the German company called IG Farbenindustrie (IG Farben).

At first, the Monowitz prison camp was one of the 40 sub-camps of the main Auschwitz camp, but in November 1943, the Monowitz sub-camp became Auschwitz III with its own sub-camps.

Today, a solid concrete fence surrounds the former Buna Werke, which is off limits to tourists. The old fence is the first thing that you see, as you are driving into the town of Auschwitz from the Krakow airport. The fence stretches for miles, and behind it, are factories, built by the Germans, that are still being used today.

Caution: Spoilers ahead.  Stop reading now if you plan to purchase this book and read it yourself.

The section of the book about Avey’s time in a POW camp at Monowitz doesn’t begin until Chapter 9.  Before that, Avey tells about his war experience and how he was captured.  This part of the book establishes what kind of man he was, and gives you an idea of why he “broke into Auschwitz.”  Avey was very brave, but also reckless and foolhardy.

There are several photos in the book which show Avey as a young man.  He was 25 years old, and very handsome, when he “broke into Auschwitz.” He still looks remarkably good for a man of 92.

His book will probably be made into a movie and the actor who plays the part should be someone who looks like Van Johnson, a famous actor in the 1940s.  I can’t think of any current actor who has the looks and charisma of Van Johnson, so the part will probably go to an unknown actor.  But I digress.

Denis Avey was a British POW in the E715 camp, which was located across the road that runs along the southern border of the huge Monowitz factory site.  The distance from the E715 camp to the Jewish barracks at Monowitz is measured in yards, not miles.

Two maps are included in Avey’s book: one map shows that the POW camp was about 500 yards from the Monowitz barracks for the Jewish workers.

The Auschwitz II camp, aka Birkenau, was the “death camp” where four gas chambers were located. Birkenau is 7 miles east of the former Monowitz prison camp.  Auschwitz I, the main camp, is about 5 miles east of  the Monowitz factories.

This quote is from page 168 of the American edition of Avey’s book:

On 18 January 1945 the Jews were marched out of Auschwitz III-Monowitz for the last time.  The camp, just a few hundred yards along the track from E715, was abandoned except for some of the sick who were left behind.

One of the maps in the book shows that the barracks for the sick prisoners made up about 20% of the Jewish barracks.  Yet throughout the book, Avey mentions that there was a daily selection at Monowitz, and the prisoners, who were too sick to continue working, were immediately sent to the gas chamber.  Why did they need a large section of barracks for the sick if the sick prisoners were immediately gassed?

On page 140, Avey describes the scene when he entered the Monowitz prison camp:

It was still light when we passed through the gate and I saw the sign bearing the cruel promise “Arbeit Macht Frei” — work sets you free.

I didn’t know that the irony of those words would scream across the decades. This was Auschwitz III–Monowitz.

Rob Broomby co-wrote the book with Avey.  On page 235, we learn that Broomby questioned whether the “Arbeit Macht Frei” sign was actually on the Monowitz gate.

This quote is from page 235 of the American edition:

As Rob’s research continued it threw up some interesting questions about the nature of memory. He kept asking me if I was certain I had seen that Arbeit Macht Frei sign at the gates to Auschwitz III Monowitz.  I was, but he said some experts had questioned it and nothing survives at the site today to testify one way or the other. The sign everyone knows these days is at the gates of the main camp, Auschwitz I. After more than sixty years it is that one which is emblazoned on the collective memory although many camps had them. Rob said the most influential account of life in the camp — that of survivor and writer Primo Levi — mentioned the sign at Auschwitz III more than once but the head of Research at Auschwitz wasn’t convinced.

From Avey’s book, I learned that the Jewish prisoners wore “crude wooden clogs” when they worked at the Monowitz factories.  I think most people would picture “clogs” as looking like the wooden shoes that are made in Holland.  Years ago, I visited a Museum in the town of Dachau which displayed shoes worn by the Dachau prisoners; they were regular style shoes made with cloth uppers and wooden soles. When I visited the Museum at Bergen-Belsen in 2001, I saw a pair of shoes with leather uppers and wooden soles, which had allegedly been worn by a Jewish prisoner.  The prisoners at Bergen-Belsen worked to salvage usable leather from a huge pile of worn-out shoes in the camp; the leather was then nailed to a wooden sole to make new shoes for the prisoners.

Shoes with wooden soles worn by Jewish prisoners

This small detail is important because Avey  did not mention that Ernst Lobethal, the man whose life he had saved, had worn wooden clogs.  On page 125, Avey describes Lobethal’s clothing:

This lad was around nineteen and somehow different. I noticed right away that his zebra striped uniform was thicker than most, not quite so worn out, maybe even cleaner than the others.

Avey was cautious at first because Lobethal seemed to be “one of the favored few.” Lobethal didn’t do heavy manual labor in the camp; he had some sort of privileged position.  Lobethal wore better clothes than the others, according to Avey, but Avey did not write anything about Lobethal’s shoes.

Lobethal’s life was saved because he used the cigarettes, that Avey obtained from Lobethal’s sister, to have his shoes resoled before going on the 38-mile march out of the camp to Gleiwitz, a camp in the Greater German Reich, on January 18, 1945.  This implies that Lobethal did not wear crude wooden clogs.

Avey wrote that there was a shoe repair place at Monowitz.  But why was this needed if almost all of the prisoners wore wooden clogs?  Were the “clogs” really shoes with leather or cloth uppers and wooden soles?

In any case, Denis Avey was rejected by Yad Vashem for the honor of being a Righteous Gentile; he did not get a tree planted in his honor in Israel because his claim of saving a Jew was not allowed. After all, Lobethal might have made it for 38 miles on his old soles, although in his Shoah testimony, Lobethal himself credited the new soles with saving his life.

Avey’s book does settle one question that is very controversial: Did the Germans march the Jewish prisoners out of Auschwitz as a means of killing them or did they march them out because they needed workers for their factories in Germany?

On page 170, Avey wrote:

The Germans had marched off their Jewish prisoners, thinking they could wring some more work out of them.

Avey and the other British POWs marched out of their camp on Jan. 21st, three days after the Jewish prisoners started their march.  At the beginning of their march, the POWs were on the same route taken by the Jewish prisoners. Avey mentioned that they were walking for miles on the frozen bodies of the dead Jewish prisoners before the route changed.

Avey wrote on page 173:

We didn’t know what they had planned for us. After all, we had witnessed Auschwitz.

So the Germans weren’t worried about allowing witnesses to live?

What had the British POWs and the Jewish prisoners at Monowitz actually witnessed?  Did they see the gas chambers?  SS judge Georg Konrad Morgen testified at the Nuremberg IMT that there was a gas chamber at Monowitz.  You can read about it here on my web site.

Avey wrote about the Allied bombing of the Monowitz factories.  He wrote about an air raid shelter; the POWs did not want to go inside this shelter because they had heard rumors about the gas chambers, and they were afraid the air raid shelter might be a gas chamber in disguise.

Air raid shelter at Monowitz looked like a gas chamber

On page 167, Avey wrote that the Red Cross packages could not get through due to the Allied bombing.  On the next page, he wrote about a Russian air raid.

POW camp E715 had previously been a camp for Russian POWs.  Avey wrote that there were rumors that the Russians had been gassed to make room for the British POWs.

On page 175, Avey wrote, regarding how he survived the march out of Auschwitz:

I forced the most appalling things down my gullet on that march and each time I convinced myself that it was a Christmas dinner. It’s how I survived.

Yet, when Avey sneaked into the Jewish barracks at Monowitz for the first time, he didn’t eat the evening meal, nor breakfast, according to his book.  He went directly to his bunk and stayed out of sight.  Maybe Avey knew that he would have been caught if he had gone through the chow line.  Primo Levi wrote that the Jewish prisoners had to show their tattoo before they could get their food.  We know that either Rob Broomby or Denis Avey had read Primo Levi’s books so they didn’t make the mistake of claiming in their book that Avey went through the chow line while he was in the Jewish barracks on his first trip.

This quote, about his second trip to the Jewish barracks, is from page 147:

Breakfast was odd-tasting black bread smeared with something I took to be rancid margarine.  We passed between tables picking it up as we went by. There was no going back.  I kept my head down, took it and passed on.  I was hungry but I still couldn’t eat it.

If Avey didn’t eat the bread, how did he determine that it was odd-tasting?  The Jewish prisoners were allowed to pick up bread as they “passed between tables”?  How did the SS guards prevent the starving prisoners from taking more than their share?

On page 146, Avey wrote that there wasn’t much to see in the Monowitz barracks.  Regarding why he sneaked into the Jewish barracks, he wrote:

I had wanted to know more about the selections, the gas chambers, but now I understood that I was in the wrong place for that.  The camps were separate but inextricably linked.  These people were being driven on relentlessly; falter or weaken and they were sent on to the gas chambers.  There were many parts, but it had one machine.

On page 160, Avey wrote that he was disappointed by his first trip to the Jewish barracks at Monowitz.

He wrote:

The selections took place there but the mechanized slaughter was happening elsewhere.

I have been watching the Casey Anthony trial on TV and I keep hearing the defense lawyers say: “Objection, assuming facts not in evidence.”  This would be a good sub-title for Avey’s book:  “The Man Who Broke into Auschwitz, Assuming Facts not in Evidence.”  He didn’t find out anything about the gas chambers; he just assumed that they existed and that the prisoners who disappeared were killed by “mechanized slaughter.”  The actual sub-title of the book is A True Story of World War II.

Avey decided to make a second trip to the Jewish barracks at Monowitz since he had not learned much on his first trip. Regarding the second trip, he wrote:

Once inside I took to the bunk and stayed there.  I knew I wasn’t going to be eating their food.

So that’s why he didn’t get caught.  He didn’t risk being asked to show his tattoo before being served any food.

I did learn one thing about the Jewish barracks that I didn’t know before.  Three prisoners slept in one bed, but they slept across the bed, not with their heads at the head of the bed and their feet at the foot.  Avey was over six feet tall, so his legs were hanging over, but the Jewish prisoners were much shorter and sleeping cross-wise gave them more room in the bed.

I also learned that the British POWs were given white bread.  The Germans were following the Geneva Convention to the letter.  POWs were supposed to be given their native diet which meant white bread for the British instead of the nutritious black bread that the Jewish prisoners ate.  The Jews were given “cabbage soup” according to Denis Avey.  If you’ve ever cooked cabbage, you know that it cooks down to nothing, so a bowl of  cooked cabbage provides very concentrated nutrition.  Cabbage is a source of Vitamin C.  Himmler, who was a health nut, would have known that Vitamin C is essential and he would have fed the prisoners cabbage for that reason.

Avey follows the obligatory formula for a Holocaust-related book: he mentions the obligatory story of the killing of a baby by an SS man.  He wrote that he saw an SS man punch a baby in the face with all his might.  The typical baby-killing story involves an SS man smashing a baby against a train or truck or wall.  Baby-atrocity stories are part of an old tradition that was started by the British in World War I when they told the lie about German soldiers “cutting off the hands of the babies in Belgium.”

The formula for a Holocaust-related book also includes some mention of at least one of the famous evil Nazis.  Avey mentions seeing Irma Grese who was a famous guard at Birkenau, but somehow she turned up at Monowitz and was included in his book.

The cover of the American edition of Avey’s book is plain black with gold letters on the spine.  However, the paper book jacket has a scary-looking photo of the gate house at the entrance into the Auschwitz II camp, aka Birkenau.  The cover photo is inappropriate because Denis Avey was in a POW camp that was seven miles from Birkenau.  Avey’s story has nothing whatsoever to do with the Birkenau death camp.  The photo looks like a recent photo that has been converted from a color photo into black and white and darkened to make it look ominous. I previously blogged about photos of the Birkenau gate house here.

The background of the book jacket is black with the title in red and gold letters. Is this supposed to suggest the red-gold-and-black German flag that the German people are now ashamed to fly?

I would suggest that an appropriate cover picture would be a sepia tone photo of Denis as a young man, or several old photos, including one of the soccer team in the POW camp.  The part about him sneaking into the Jewish barracks at Monowitz is a small part of the book.  His exploits during World War II should be high-lighted instead.

Red arrow points to Avey on the soccer team in POW camp

July 2, 2011

Charles Coward, the first British POW who broke into Auschwitz

Filed under: Holocaust, World War II — Tags: , , , — furtherglory @ 10:58 am

The British started broadcasting on the BBC about the gassing of prisoners by the Nazis in June 1942.  So it is not surprising that two British POWs (Charles Coward and Dennis Avey) sneaked into Auschwitz to find out about the infamous gas chamber and to bear witness to the crimes committed by the Germans.  Charles Coward wrote a book entitled The Password is Courage in 1954; on the back cover the sub-title was The Man who Broke into Auschwitz. This is the exact same title as a book written by Dennis Avey which was published in the UK last year and just recently in America.

Both Charles Coward and Dennis Avey were prisoners in the E715 POW camp that was only a short distance from the barracks at the Auschwitz III camp, aka Monowitz, where Jewish prisoners lived while they were working in the IG Farben factories at Monowitz.

Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler at Monowitz, July 1942

The photograph above shows Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler, a five-star general, who was the head of the SS and the man who was responsible for all the Nazi concentration camps; he is on a visit to inspect the Monowitz factories on July 17th and 18th, 1942. Himmler is the man wearing a uniform. The two men on the right are German engineers.

The Brtish POW soccer team at E715 camp

The British soldiers in the POW camp were treated well because the British had signed the Geneva Convention of 1929 and their POWs were entitled to the protection of the Convention.  The Jewish prisoners were treated far worse, according to Dennis Avey’s account.

Charles Coward was captured in May 1940; he was sent to Monowitz in December 1943. Coward testified at the Nuremberg International Military Tribunal regarding the location of the gas chamber where Jewish prisoners were gassed.

The following excerpts are from Charles Coward’s Nuremberg affidavit:

Affidavit Copy of Document NI-11696, Prosecution Exhibit 1462

COWARD: I made it a point to get one of the guards to take me to town under the pretense of buying new razor blades and stuff for our boys. For a few cigarettes he pointed out to me the various places where they had the gas chambers and the places where they took them down to be cremated. Everyone to whom I spoke gave the same story – the people in the city of Auschwitz, the SS men, concentration camp inmates, foreign workers – everyone said that thousands of people were being gassed and cremated at Auschwitz, and that the inmates who worked with us and who were unable to continue working because of their physical condition and were suddenly missing, had been sent to the gas chambers. The inmates who were selected to be gassed went through the procedure of preparing for a bath, they stripped their clothes off, and walked into the bathing room. Instead of showers, there was gas. All the camp knew it. All the civilian population knew it. I mixed with the civilian population at Auschwitz. I was at Auschwitz nearly every day…Nobody could live in Auschwitz and work in the plant, or even come down to the plant without knowing what was common knowledge to everybody.

Even while still at Auschwitz we got radio broadcasts from the outside speaking about the gassings and burnings at Auschwitz. I recall one of these broadcasts was by Anthony Eden himself. Also, there were pamphlets dropped in Auschwitz and the surrounding territory, one of which I personally read, which related what was going on in the camp at Auschwitz. These leaflets were scattered all over the countryside and must have been dropped from planes. They were in Polish and German. Under those circumstances, nobody could be at or near Auschwitz without knowing what was going on.

[…]

COWARD: The figures indicated 11 and 12 were known to us as the concentration camps, and when I mentioned about the gas chambers or crematoriums, I mean to infer that I had visited what was shown to me to be a gas chamber some distance from the railway station at Auschwitz.

The railway station at the town of Auschwitz had a platform called the “Judenrampe,”  where the Jews exited from the transport trains and were then marched to the Birkenau camp; the old people and children were taken in trucks to the gas chambers in “the little white house” and “the little red house.”

Former location of the Judenrampe

The photo above, taken in October 2005, shows a group of tourists reading a sign board that tells about the Judenrampe, which was formerly in this location.

The tracks where the transport trains arrived near Birkenau

Charles Coward’s testimony at the Nuremberg IMT is quoted below:

DR. DRISCHEL (counsel for Defendant Ambros): Witness, it is remarkable that you state in your affidavit that for a few cigarettes you saw the gas chambers in Auschwitz and the crematoria. Can you tell its where that was in the city of Auschwitz?

COWARD: To my best belief the gas chamber and crematorium, as it was known, was about 50 yards from a railway station at the far end of, I think the name was Monowitz.

DR. DRISCHEL: Did I understand you to say that you saw the gas chambers in Monowitz?

COWARD: No, not actually in Monowitz, no. Where the station was at Auschwitz, you see – I very likely misunderstood your question. At Auschwitz there was a railway station, you see, and about 50 to 100 yards from Auschwitz there was a siding where they used to bring the civilians, you see; and about 20 yards on the other side of this siding was where this particular guard took me and showed me the place. –

DR. DRISCHEL: Witness, could you please indicate to what is on the map that is behind you? I don’t understand where these gas chambers are supposed to have been. If you will be kind enough to turn around you will see a map of Auschwitz.

COWARD: The city of Auschwitz, there [indicating] – Whereabouts is the station, farther over? You see, the station is not marked on the map, is it?

DR. DRISCHEL: Yes, I understand. I can define by question by saying that you, Mr. Witness, are of the opinion that these gas chambers and crematoria were located in the vicinity of the station of the city of Auschwitz. That is the way you described it previously. Did I understand you correctly?

COWARD: That is correct.

DR. DRISCHEL: Very well. Then I understood you correctly that you were never in the main camp of Auschwitz, which is on the lower left-hand side of the map, because you said that you were in the camp which is a few hundred yards next to camp VI.

COWARD: That is correct.

DR. DRISCHEL: Then, Mr. Witness, is your description in the affidavit; at least not very misleading?

COWARD: I do not think so. The figures indicated 11 and 12 were known to us as the concentration camps, and when I mentioned about the gas chambers or crematoriums, I mean to infer that I had visited what was shown to me to be a gas chamber some distance from the railway station at Auschwitz.

From this testimony, we learn that the Jewish barracks at Monowitz were very close to the barracks of the E715 POW camp, so it would not have been difficult for a POW to sneak into the Jewish barracks.

We also learn, from the testimony of Charles Coward, that the gas chamber at Auschwitz was near the railroad station, that is, near the Judenrampe.

The photo below, which I took in 2005, shows the buildings which are “about 20 yards on the other side of this (railroad) siding” as described by Charles Coward.

Abandoned buildings near the Judenrampe location

The Monowitz labor camp was kept open until just a week before soldiers in the army of the Soviet Union arrived to liberate the camp on January 27, 1945. The last roll call of the three Auschwitz camps showed a total of 67,012 prisoners. Out of this total, more than half were the workers in the Buna plant at Monowitz and its many sub-camps.

The Nazi records from Auschwitz were turned over to the Red Cross International Tracing Service by the Soviet Union after the fall of Communism. They were published in a book written by Danuta Czech.  The records showed that the number of prisoners in Auschwitz III Monowitz (Buna-Werke) was 10,223, with many more prisoners in the numerous sub-camps.  Although the Nazis were desperate for workers in their munitions factories, Hungarian Jews who were capable of working were gassed upon arrival at Auschwitz, according to Danuta Czech.

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