Scrapbookpages Blog

February 14, 2016

Let me tell you abour Nisko where the Jews were sent during World War II

Filed under: Germany, Holocaust, World War II — Tags: , — furtherglory @ 8:46 am
Railroad station in Nisko Poland

Railroad station in Nisko Poland [2010 photo]

The subject of Nisko is frequently mentioned, by Dr. Wolf Murmelstein, one of the regular readers of my blog.  Before I looked up the subject of Nisko on the Internet, I  had imagined that Nisko was some God-forsaken place out in the wilderness of Poland.  Not true — Nisko was, and still is, a beautiful little town in southern Poland.

Nisko Poland

The beautiful town of Nisko in Poland

So why is the subject of Nisko so important?  I am going to attempt to explain it.

The following quote is from Wikipedia:  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nisko

When Poland was occupied by German forces during World War II, Nisko became part of the Nazi government’s plan to annihilate the Jews. Beginning in 1939, many Jews were shipped to a reservation at Nisko, where they were left to fend for themselves. At this point in Nazi Germany, the policy of mass Jewish killings had not yet taken shape and Germany’s plan still seemed to be the indirect death of European Jews through exile and deportation to inhabitable locations without sufficient supplies, rather than outright murder in extermination camps. This was known as the “Nisko Plan”. While many Jews were shipped to Nisko and left to die without sufficient food or shelter, the plan of creating a reservation was abandoned, supplanted by the Nazi policy of confinement of Jews in ghettos and then deportation to the extermination camps, including nearby Belzec, Sobibor and Majdanek.[2]

During World War Two, Nisko was an important center of the Home Army and Bataliony Chlopskie. In 1944 – 1945, the Red Army and the Soviet NKVD arrested here a number of Poles, executing members of anti-Communist resistance.

[…]

The reservation idea was devised by Adolf Hitler with Nazi chief ideologist Alfred Rosenberg and Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler, including active participation of SS-Obersturmbannführer and “architect of the Holocaust”, Adolf Eichmann; as well as Hans Frank and Arthur Seyss-Inquart of the Generalgouvernement administration; and Heinrich Müller of the Gestapo. Odilo Globocnik, the former Gauleiter of Vienna, then SS and Police Leader of the Lublin district, implemented the plan and was in direct charge of both the reservation and the adjacent camps.

In total, about 95,000 Jews were deported to the Lublin reservation.[12] The main camp of the entire complex was set up in Belzec initially for the Jewish forced labor. In March 1942 it became the first Nazi extermination camp of Operation Reinhard, with permanent gas chambers arranged by Christian Wirth in fake shower rooms.[13] Though the Burggraben camps were temporarily closed in late 1940, many of them were reactivated in 1941. Two other extermination camps, Sobibor and Majdanek, were later set up in the Lublin district also. The Lipowa camp became a subcamp of the latter in 1943. The Nisko Plan was abandoned for pragmatic reasons.

End quote from Wikipedia

Dr. Murmelstein wrote an essay about Nisko, which I have published on my website at http://www.scrapbookpages.com/Contributions/Murmelstein/JewishSettlements.html

The following quote is from Dr. Wolf Murmelstein’s essay, as published on my website:

The very moment to show the Arab friends how Nazi Germany could address Jewish emigration to a destination far away from Palestine came in October 1939 after Poland had been overrun. On October 6th, Hitler, in his speech before the Reichstag, offering in this manner peace talks to the Western Allies, spoke about the new assessment of Poland and mentioned vaguely the idea of a Jewish Settlement Area there.

In the same days of October, a transport of Jewish men of working age from Vienna and Bohemia-Moravia had to be set up, and some leading Community Officials – Murmelstein from Vienna and Edelstein from Prague – with other staff members – had to join. On October 19, 1939, this first transport reached the station of Nisko, a little town in the Lublin area, near the border between the German and the Soviet zones of Poland. After a long march, the group reached a meadow, their destination. The following day, Eichmann gave a speech about building shanties, setting up a health service, an organization to start, etc. as “otherwise it should mean to die.”

In a personal talk, Murmelstein asked about the means available, realizing that there was nothing, as Eichmann advised only: “kick the Polish peasant out and settle in his house.” This seemed to be madness, but a Jewish official, within this mess and ignoring, of course, the political background, could not appreciate the method there was in it.

In those days, other transports arrived; people had been led by armed SS men for some miles and then ordered to disperse: colonization by dispersion of people. A group had been directed right into the marsh; wounded persons lying around had been picked up by the peasants; some brave man had been able to cross the border line towards the Soviet zone.

Murmelstein, after some days, obtained an authorization to leave the camp to look for accommodation opportunities; clearly the very intent was to reach Lublin, asking the Community there for help. In order to have official evidence of efforts performed to find out accommodation opportunities, Murmelstein asked the area prefect for a hearing in order to ask for assent to use some abandoned building as accommodation. As the prefect stated he had no information about things going on, it appeared possible to let local authorities stop the Eichmann action. Murmelstein therefore referred to the October 6th Hitler speech and then to the advice to “kick the Polish peasant out and settle.” The Eichmann march order did not allow putting Murmelstein and his group under arrest, so the prefect ordered them to go to Lublin without any further delay and wait there for instructions.

The Lublin Community leaders were surprised, learning about things going on nearby. Important is that Area Commander SS Colonel Strauch, did not know anything about the Eichmann action. After ten days, Strauch ordered Murmelstein and his colleagues: Return to Nisko for instructions.

Eichmann, at Nisko, sent the leading Jewish officials home in order to catch every possible further emigration opportunity. From Vienna, Prague and Berlin, some thousand persons, until March 1941, could still emigrate during increasing difficulties. No further transports were scheduled to arrive in Nisko any more. The 450 workers returned home after six months. The camp had been set up for the transit of Germans returning from Eastern European countries to the Reich.

General Governor Hans Frank claimed, in a speech, to be the only authority and representative of the Reich in Poland. Hans Frank was not willing to have there an area controlled directly by the SS which would mean also control over him and he preferred to set up overcrowded Ghettoes in town districts. This was another way to show the Arab friends that Jewish emigration had been addressed far away from Palestine; from Poland, no emigration was allowed any more.

End quote from essay by Dr. Wolf Murmelstein

So why is all this important?  To me, this indicates that Hitler did not want to kill the Jews, but he did want them out of Germany.  He wanted to send them to Poland, but this didn’t work out.

December 1, 2014

Did Hitler just want to expel the Jews from Europe, or did he want to kill them all?

Filed under: Germany, Holocaust — Tags: , , , — furtherglory @ 9:11 am

I have been having a depressing discussion with one of the readers of my blog, in the comments section, about the use of the word “expelled” to describe Hitler’s motive in wanting to get the Jews out of Germany, and eventually out of Europe.

Some of the regular followers of my blog might want to weigh in on the subject of the Nazis “expelling” the Jews versus “murdering the Jews.”

Hitler wanted to “ausrotten” the Jews.  What does that mean?  There are two sides to this question.  One side is against the law in 20 countries, and the other side is “the Holocaust” as taught in schools world wide.  You can read some quotes from Hitler’s speeches on this blog post: https://furtherglory.wordpress.com/2013/04/14/the-latest-flap-in-the-national-news-the-nazi-essay-controversy-in-albany-ny/

I previously blogged about this subject in a blog post entitled Let me tell you about the Jewish settlement in Nisko, Poland which you can read in full here.

This quote is from that previous blog post:

When did Hitler decide on the genocide of the Jews in Europe?  Nobody knows because he didn’t put it in writing.  One thing we do know is that, in the 1930s, there were proposals, by other European leaders, to resettle the Jews in Uganda, Madagascar or Biro Bidjan in Siberia.  In other words, any place besides Palestine.

After the conquest of Poland in 1939, Germany got in on it, with a settlement for the Jews in Nisko, a little town in Poland.   The settlement quickly failed because of poor prior planning.

Before World War II, the Polish Nationalists had asked the French right-wing parties to back the idea of a mass emigration of the Polish Jews for a settlement on the island of Madagascar. At the same time, in the Soviet Union, Stalin had launched the project of the Jewish Republic of Biro Bidjan, located in Siberia.

Let’s start with the Jewish settlement in Nizko, Poland.

This quote is from an essay written by Wolf Murmelstein, the son of Benjamin Murmelstein, the last Jewish elder of Theresienstat, now known as Terezin.

The very moment to show the Arab friends how Nazi Germany could address Jewish emigration to a destination far away from Palestine came in October 1939 after Poland had been overrun. On October 6th, Hitler, in his speech before the Reichstag, offering in this manner peace talks to the Western Allies, spoke about the new assessment of Poland and mentioned vaguely the idea of a Jewish Settlement Area there.

In the same days of October, a transport of Jewish men of working age from Vienna and Bohemia-Moravia had to be set up, and some leading Community Officials – Murmelstein from Vienna and Edelstein from Prague – with other staff members – had to join. On October 19, 1939, this first transport reached the station of Nisko, a little town in the Lublin area, near the border between the German and the Soviet zones of Poland. After a long march, the group reached a meadow, their destination. The following day, Eichmann gave a speech about building shanties, setting up a health service, an organization to start, etc. as “otherwise it should mean to die.”

In a personal talk, Murmelstein asked about the means available, realizing that there was nothing, as Eichmann advised only: “kick the Polish peasant out and settle in his house.” This seemed to be madness, but a Jewish official, within this mess and ignoring, of course, the political background, could not appreciate the method there was in it.

[…]

Eichmann, at Nisko, sent the leading Jewish officials home in order to catch every possible further emigration opportunity. From Vienna, Prague and Berlin, some

The very moment to show the Arab friends how Nazi Germany could address Jewish emigration to a destination far away from Palestine came in October 1939 after Poland had been overrun. On October 6th, Hitler, in his speech before the Reichstag, offering in this manner peace talks to the Western Allies, spoke about the new assessment of Poland and mentioned vaguely the idea of a Jewish Settlement Area there.

In the same days of October, a transport of Jewish men of working age from Vienna and Bohemia-Moravia had to be set up, and some leading Community Officials – Murmelstein from Vienna and Edelstein from Prague – with other staff members – had to join. On October 19, 1939, this first transport reached the station of Nisko, a little town in the Lublin area, near the border between the German and the Soviet zones of Poland. After a long march, the group reached a meadow, their destination. The following day, Eichmann gave a speech about building shanties, setting up a health service, an organization to start, etc. as “otherwise it should mean to die.”

In a personal talk, Murmelstein asked about the means available, realizing that there was nothing, as Eichmann advised only: “kick the Polish peasant out and settle in his house.” This seemed to be madness, but a Jewish official, within this mess and ignoring, of course, the political background, could not appreciate the method there was in it.

[…]

Eichmann, at Nisko, sent the leading Jewish officials home in order to catch every possible further emigration opportunity. From Vienna, Prague and Berlin, some thousand persons, until March 1941, could still emigrate during increasing difficulties. No further transports were scheduled to arrive in Nisko any more. The 450 workers returned home after six months. The camp had been set up for the transit of Germans returning from Eastern European countries to the Reich.

Read the last sentence again: The [Nisko] camp had been set up for the transit of [Jewish] Germans returning from Eastern countries to the [German] Reich.  It seems that no country wanted the Jews. This quote is from an article which you can read in full here:

On 13 May 1939, more than 900 Jews fled Germany aboard a luxury cruise liner, the SS St Louis. They hoped to reach Cuba and then travel to the US – but were turned away in Havana and forced to return to Europe, where more than 250 were killed by the Nazis.

Did you catch that? The Jews “fled” from the Nazis, but no other country would take them, not even the United States of America. The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum explains what happened.

I visited the USHMM museum several years ago. After leaving the elevator on the fourth floor of the musuem, the progression of the fourth floor exhibit is to the left. The displays continue around behind the elevators until you come to a red and white painted metal pole, placed horizontally so that it is a barrier blocking the exit near the end of the room. On my visit to the museum, I noticed that some visitors squeezed through and went around the barrier, but by doing so they missed a significant part of the displays.

The red and white metal pole represents the border of Poland which the Germans crossed when they invaded on September 1, 1939, but there is more to the story before you get to that point, so visitors should turn left at the barrier, where you will see a semicircular niche completely covered with a photograph of Lake Geneva.

The title of the exhibit in the niche is “No help, No haven.” It is the story of the Evian Conference, which President Roosevelt organized in July 1938. Representatives of 32 countries met at a luxury hotel to discuss the refugee problem after the Germans had taken over Austria in March and made it known that they wanted to get rid of all the Jews.

The Evian conference was a failure because no country wanted to accept the Jews, but the United States did agree to admit the full quota of Eastern Europeans and Germans (Jews and non-Jews) allowed by our immigration laws, which had not been done up to that time.

Hitler didn’t want Jews in Germany; he wanted Germany to be a nation of Germans. What to do?  Hitler decided on the Transfer Agreement, by which he sent prominent Jewish leaders to Palestine and  transferred a large sum of money with them.

I previously wrote about the Transfer Agreement on this blog post: https://furtherglory.wordpress.com/2011/10/05/hitler-and-the-transfer-agreement/

Hitler was an anti-Semite, which meant something different in his day. I blogged about the meaning of anti-Semite in this previous blog post: https://furtherglory.wordpress.com/2011/06/19/was-richard-wagner-an-anti-semite/

Now the news is full of stories about Netanyahu who wants Israel to be a “nation state.”  Oh no! Netanyahu is worse than Hitler, who wanted Germany to be a nation state for Germans.  Where will the Germans go, if they are ever kicked out of Germany by the Jews, who are now returning to Germany?  They can’t go to Israel because Israel is now a “nation state” for Jews.

 

 

 

 

 

January 21, 2011

let me tell you about the Jewish settlement in Nisko, Poland

Filed under: Holocaust, World War II — Tags: , — furtherglory @ 7:36 am

When did Hitler decide on the genocide of the Jews in Europe?  Nobody knows because he didn’t put it in writing.  One thing we do know is that, in the 1930s, there were proposals, by other European leaders, to resettle the Jews in Uganda, Madagascar or Biro Bidjan in Siberia.  In other words, any place besides Palestine.

After the conquest of Poland in 1939, Germany got in on it, with a settlement for the Jews in Nisko, a little town in Poland.   The settlement quickly failed because of poor prior planning.    (more…)