Scrapbookpages Blog

November 7, 2015

The story of Treblinka…transit camp or extermination center

My 19989 photo of the tiny village of Treblinka near the Treblinka camp

My 1998 photo of the tiny village of Treblinka near the Treblinka camp, taken during a light rain

Today, I  received an e-mail from Bradley Smith, telling me about the History Channel running  “Hitler’s Killing Machine” which is the story of Treblinka.

You can read all about Treblinka on my website, starting at

http://www.scrapbookpages.com/Poland/Treblinka/introduction.html

I  visited Treblinka with a private tour guide in 1998 and I  have since written several blog posts about Treblinka, which you can read at

https://furtherglory.wordpress.com/2014/02/24/archaeologists-discover-tiles-from-the-walls-of-the-gas-chamber-at-treblinka-the-end-of-holocaust-denial/

https://furtherglory.wordpress.com/2011/10/06/was-treblinka-really-a-transit-camp/

https://furtherglory.wordpress.com/tag/treblinka-death-camp/

I have a whole section about Treblinka on my website:  http://www.scrapbookpages.com/Poland/Treblinka/

You can read below what I wrote about Treblinka after my visit to the camp in 1998:

The road to Treblinka which is way out in the boondocks

The road to Treblinka which is way out in the boondocks

As you get near the village of Treblinka, there is a line of beautiful chestnut trees alongside the road on the right. You see old men walking along the road, carrying bundles of sticks on their backs. There are farm families digging potatoes and burning the dried potato vines in the fields.

Occasionally, you see a stork’s nest on a roof near the chimney, or a large ant hill at the edge of a forest, surrounded by a tiny log fence for protection.

There are old wooden Catholic churches and white cottages with thatched roofs along the road. Telephone poles are topped with glass insulators, the kind you see for sale in antique stores in America.

The farther you travel down this road, the farther you seem to go back in time.

Near Malkinia Junction, the road has ancient concrete barriers to prevent cars from leaving the road, and quaint old railroad crossing signs. From this junction, a branch railroad line runs south from the Ostbahn (Eastern Railroad line) to the village of Treblinka where there was a small train station in the 1940ies.

Finally, you get to a narrow archway over the road, the purpose of which is to keep vehicles larger than 2.5 tons from proceeding beyond this point. [The arch is shown in the photograph at the top of this page] .

One lane railroad bridge on the road to Treblinka

One lane railroad bridge on the road to Treblinka

Just before you get to the Treblinka camp, you must cross a one-lane railroad bridge that was formerly used by both trains and cars, but is now used [in 1998] only by cars and pedestrians.

According to Martin Gilbert in his book “Holocaust Journey,” this bridge was rebuilt some time after 1959; the bridge had been destroyed during World War II. The reconstructed bridge is shown in my 1998 photograph below.

One lane bridge over the Bug river, on the way to Treblinka

My 1998 photo of the one lane bridge over the Bug river, on the way to Treblinka

The surface of the bridge is made of wood and the train tracks are not level, which would cause any train using the bridge to list to one side. The tracks of the railroad lines in Germany and Poland were then, and still are today, a different width, or gauge, than the tracks across the eastern border of the Bialystok District in what used to be the Soviet Union, and is now the country of Byelorussia or Belarus, formerly called White Russia.

According to my tour guide, today [in 1998] trains from Germany or Poland must stop at the Bialystok eastern border and change to wider wheels which can run on the different gauge tracks in Russia.

In 1941, it was necessary for the German invading army to extend the standard European gauge tracks into Russia, as they advanced. The poor condition of the roads in Poland and Russia hampered the advancing Germany troops when their vehicles would become mired in three feet of mud. Three kilometers from Treblinka was located the main railroad line into Russia, through the Bialystok province.

After the joint conquest of Poland by the Germans and the Russians in September 1939, the river Bug (pronounced Boog) became the border between the German-occupied General Government of Poland and the Russian zone of occupation; then Germany invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941 and conquered the strip of eastern Poland that was being occupied by the Russians. Treblinka is located in the former General Government.

On January 20, 1942, a conference was held in Wannsee, a suburb of Berlin, where plans were made for the “Final Solution to the Jewish Question.” Three extermination camps, called the Operation Reinhard Camps were planned at this conference. Treblinka was the last of the Operation Reinhard camps to be set up; the other two were Sobibor and Belzec.

All three of the Operation Reinhard camps were located on the western side of the Bug river. There is a bend in the river near Treblinka, which required a bridge over the river in order to get to the village of Treblinka, although the village is located on the western side of the border between the former General Government and the Russian zone of occupation.

Hardly more than a creek, the Bug is shallow enough in some places so that one can wade across it, and according to historian Martin Gilbert, some refugees, from both sides, did wade across.

The movie “Europa, Europa” has a scene in which Jewish refugees are shown walking toward the Russian sector, trying to escape the Nazis in September 1939 by crossing the Bug river on rafts.

End of quote from my website, written in 1998.

As a result of my 1998 trip to Treblinka, on which I was the only tourist there, I believe that Treblinka was a transit camp and that there were no gas chambers there.

August 14, 2013

90-year-old survivor of Treblinka death camp unveils foundation stone for future Treblinka education center designed by his daughter

Original sign on entrance to Treblinka camp

Original sign on entrance to Treblinka camp

Treblinka was one of the three Nazi camps, which were called “the Operation Reinhard camps,” named after Reinhard Heydrich, the man who was the chairman of the Wannsee Conference held on January 20, 1942.  According to the official Holocaust history, these three camps were allegedly set up, following the conference, to carry out “The Final Solution,” which is now claimed, by the Holocaustians, to be the plan to genocide the Jews.  The other two Reinhard camps were Belzec and Sobibor.  (The Nazis called these three camps “transit camps,” from which Jews were “transported to the East,” never to be seen again.)

I previously blogged about Treblinka here.  I quoted some of the testimony of other Treblinka survivors in a blog post here.

Treblinka is second only to Auschwitz in the number of Jews who were killed in the Holocaust. The number of Jews killed at Treblinka is holding at 870,000 while the number of Jews killed at Auschwitz has dwindled down to 900,000.  (An additional 200,000 non-Jews were killed at Auschwitz, bringing today’s estimated total deaths to 1.1 million.)

A news article, which you can read in full here, tells about Samuel Willenberg, the lone survivor of the 750 Jews who were selected to work in the Treblinka camp.  (When I took a guided tour of Treblinka in 1998, I was told that there were 1,000 workers in the camp.)

This quote is from the news article:

On this anniversary Samuel Willenberg began the realisation of a long-held dream. He unveiled a foundation stone for a future Treblinka education centre designed by his architect daughter, Orit.

Treblinka sorely needs an “education centre.”  The Nazis left no evidence behind, except the ashes of the 870,000 Jews who were killed.  Sadly, the ashes have been covered over by a “symbolic cemetery,” which is shown in the photos below.

Monument at Treblinka stands in the spot where a gas chamber was located

Monument at Treblinka stands in the spot where a gas chamber was located

The ashes of 870, 000 Jews are covered by a symbolic cemetery

The ashes of 870, 000 Jews are covered by a symbolic cemetery

A huge sculpture represents the train tracks and the train platform

A huge sculpture represents the train tracks and the train platform

The photograph above shows a stone sculpture where a railroad spur line ended, with a stone platform to the left. When the camp was in operation, there was a real train platform in this spot and behind it was a storehouse, disguised as a train depot, which was used to store the clothing and other items which the victims had brought with them to the camp.

In the background of the photo above, you can see a line of 10 stones which mark the boundary line of the camp. The stones represent the different countries, from which the Jews were transported by train to be exterminated here in this remote, God-forsaken spot in the forest.  These countries included German-occupied Greece, Bulgarian-occupied Greece, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Belgium, France, Germany, Austria, and Yugoslavia.

Why not just shoot the Greek Jews in Greece, and the Belgian Jews in Belgium, you ask?  The Nazis never did anything in an efficient way.  There was a war going on, and the Nazis were using valuable trains to transport the Jews to some remote spot, along the Bug river, to kill them.

Bridge over the Bug river, which is shown on the right

Railroad bridge over the Bug river, which is shown on the right

After the joint conquest of Poland by the Germans and the Russians in September 1939, the river Bug (pronounced Boog) became the border between the German-occupied General Government of Poland and the Russian zone of occupation.  The bridge, shown in the photo above, does not cross the river into the Russian zone; this is a bridge across a bend in the river.

Germany invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941 and conquered the strip of eastern Poland that was being occupied by the Russians. Treblinka is located in the former General Government.

The Treblinka camp was divided into three sections. On the far left of the train platform where the Jews arrived was the section where the guards and administrators lived. The Jews, who worked at Treblinka, lived in Camp 1, next to the SS barracks. Today, only the area where the Jews were gassed and burned, has been preserved; the rest of the camp is now covered with trees. The whole Treblinka camp covered about 22 acres, but today’s visitors see an area that is about 7 acres in size.

The photo below was copied from the BBC article about Treblinka.

Mr Willenberg's drawing of the Treblinka infirmary shows mass shootings

Mr Willenberg’s drawing of the Treblinka infirmary shows mass shootings

The photo above, which was printed in the BBC article, shows the Treblinka INFIRMARY, aka hospital, and a large pit containing some bodies from MASS SHOOTINGS.  What happened to the gas chambers?  Does Samuel Willenberg deny the gas chambers at Treblinka?

No. Don’t panic.  The lone survivor of Treblinka is not denying that there were gas chambers at Treblinka.

I vaguely recall reading, in the pamphlet that I got from the Visitor’s center in 1998, something about the “hospital” at Treblinka.  The map in the camp pamphlet, which I obtained on my trip to Treblinka in 1998, is similar to the map shown below.

Map of the Treblinka camp

Map of the Treblinka camp

Near the bottom of the map shown above, you can see the curved “Tube” which led to the “gas chamber.”  No. 36 on the map designates the fake “train station” where the Jews got off the trains which were backed into the camp, a few cars at a time, on a railroad spur line, built by the Nazis.

To the right of the spot where the train platform once stood, and in front of you as you are looking into the camp with the platform on the left, is the location of the “burial pits for those who died during transportation,” according to the camp pamphlet. The victims were brought to the camp in freight cars, except for a few Very Important Jews, who arrived in passenger cars.

Near the burial pits, according to the pamphlet, was an “execution site (disguised as a hospital).” This is where the Jews, who were too weak or sick to walk into the gas chambers, were shot and then buried in the pits, according to the pamphlet.

Half way up the gentle slope to where the symbolic graveyard now stands, there were “3 old gas chambers” according to the pamphlet, and a short distance to the south of them were built “10 new gas chambers.”

According to my 1998 tour guide, the first gas chambers used carbon monoxide. The 10 new gas chambers used the poison gas known as Zyklon-B, according to the pamphlet that I purchased at the Visitor’s Center. Treblinka apparently did not have delousing chambers; all the clothing taken from the prisoners was sent to the Majdanek camp to be disinfected with Zyklon-B before being sent to Germany.  Two of the “gas chambers” at Majdanek have now been down-graded to disinfection chambers, and the number of Jewish deaths at Majdanek have dwindled down to 59,000.

A short distance, farther up the slope, to the east of the gas chambers at Treblinka, was located the “cremation pyres” according to the map in the camp pamphlet. None of the three Operation Reinhard extermination camps had a crematorium for burning the bodies of the 1.5 million Jews who were allegedly killed in these camps.

Of the other five extermination camps, which were in operation during the same period (Chelmno, Sobibor, Belzec, Majdanek and Auschwitz-Birkenau), only Auschwitz-Birkenau and Majdanek, which also functioned as forced labor camps, had crematoria with ovens for burning the bodies.

It seems that Treblinka is now being promoted as the most important “extermination camp” in the Holocaust, as the number of deaths in the other camps dwindle down, down, down.

Why Treblinka?  Because the Nazis left no evidence there.  This means that the Holocaustians can make up any story about Treblinka.

This quote is from the BBC article:

When the Nazis left Treblinka in 1943 they thought they had destroyed it. They had knocked down the buildings and levelled (sic) the earth. They had built a farmhouse and installed a Ukrainian “farmer”. They had planted trees, and – contemporary reports suggest – lupins.

But if they thought they had removed all evidence of their crime, they hadn’t. For a forensic archaeologist, there is a vast amount to study.

Sadly, there is also a “vast amount” for revisionists to study at Treblinka.  Read this article at the Inconvenient History website: http://revblog.codoh.com/2012/01/comment-sturdy-colls/

March 25, 2011

the trains that traveled WEST to Treblinka

Filed under: Holocaust — Tags: , , , — furtherglory @ 10:01 am

Treblinka was one of the three Operation Reinhard camps in Poland.  On January 20, 1942 at Wannsee, a suburb of Berlin, a conference was held to plan “The Final Solution to the Jewish Question” for Europe’s 11 million Jews. Reinhard Heydrich, who was the head of RSHA (Reich Security Main Office), led the conference. The protocols from the conference contained the expression “transportation to the East,” a euphemism that was used to mean the genocidal killing of all the Jews in Europe.

17,000 stones in Treblinka cemetery

Following the conference, the three Operation Reinhard camps were set up at Treblinka, Belzec and Sobibor.  The first Jews to be deported to Treblinka were from the Warsaw ghetto; the first transport of 6,000 Jews arrived at Treblinka at about 9:30 on 23 July 1942. Between late July and September 1942, the Germans transported more than 300,000 Jews from the Warsaw ghetto to Treblinka, according to the US Holocaust Memorial Museum. Jews were also deported to Treblinka from the ghettos in Lublin and Bialystok. Others were transported to Treblinka from the Theresienstadt ghetto in what is now the Czech Republic.  Trains continued to arrive regularly at Treblinka until May 1943, and a few more transports arrived after that date.

The Nazis called the Operation Reinhard camps “transit camps.” Their cover story was that the Jews were being “transported to the East” from these camps, but some of the trains actually traveled WEST to Treblinka.

Did the Nazis slip up and blow their cover story of “evacuation to the east” by sending trains west to Treblinka?  O.K., it’s time to get out the maps.

On the web site of the US Holocaust Memorial Museum, you can see a map which shows the train routes to the three Operation Reinhard camps here.   Another map on the USHMM web site, which you can see here, shows the location of Treblinka and the surrounding ghettos from which the Jews were transported to the camp.

One of the ghettos on the map is Bialystock, which was a city with a large Jewish population.  As the map on the USHMM web site clearly shows, Treblinka is southwest of Bialystok.  The map shows that Treblinka was in German-occupied Poland, which was called the General Government.  Bialystok was in Poland (and still is) but it was not in the General Government.  By 1942, the German Army had advanced into the part of Poland that had been occupied by the Soviet Union after the joint invasion of Poland in 1939 by the Germans and the Soviets.

The Nazi plan for the genocide of the Jews was to consolidate the Jews into ghettos near major railroad lines for easy transportation to the death camps, which they referred to as transit camps.  One of the main railroad lines in Poland was the Warsaw-Bialystok line. Malkinia Junction near Treblinka was a stop on this line.

The tiny village of Treblinka is located on the railroad line running from Ostrów Mazowiecki to Siedlce. A short distance from Treblinka, at Malkinia Junction, this line intersects the Warsaw-Bialystok line. Trains could reverse directions at the Junction and return to Warsaw, or turn south towards Lublin, which was the headquarters for Operation Reinhard.

When I visited Treblinka in 1998, my tour guide drove me from Warsaw to the camp, a distance of about 60 miles.  Shortly after we left Warsaw, I began seeing signs giving the distance to Bialystok.  There were no signs giving the directions to Treblinka at that time — I saw nothing but directions to Bialystok all the way to the camp.  At that time, I had never heard of Bialystok, but I deduced that it must be an important place, since all roads led to it.  I made a mental note that if I ever came back to Poland and wanted to see Treblinka again, I could just rent a car and head towards Bialystok.

The dividing line, between the part of Poland that was occupied by the Germans during World War II and the part that was occupied by the Soviets after the conquest of Poland in 1939, was the Bug river, which connects with the Vistula river.  All of the Operation Reinhard camps are very near the Bug river.

As the map on the USHMM web site shows, the territory east of Bialystok is Belarus, which Americas used to call White Russia. Also to the east of Bialystok is the section of Poland that was given to the Soviet Union after the joint conquest of Poland by the Germans and the Soviet Union in September 1939. This part of Poland, which had formerly been occupied by the Russians between 1772 and 1917, was now under the control of Germany.  The Nazis claimed that their plan was to send the Jews into this territory.

When railroad lines were built in the 19th century, the width of the tracks was standardized in America and western Europe, but the tracks in Russia and eastern Poland were a different gauge. Bialystok is the end of the line for Western railroad tracks in Poland; this is as far east as trains can go without changing the wheels on the rail cars to fit the tracks in Russia.

In June 1941, the German Army had invaded the Soviet Union. By the time that the Operation Reinhard camps were set up in 1942, German troops had advanced a thousand kilometers into Russia. The plan was to transport the Jews as far as the Bug river and kill them in gas chambers, then claim that they had been “transported to the East.”  There was no gas chamber in Bialystok so the Jews in the Bialystok ghetto were transported west to Treblinka in order to kill them.

What else could the Nazis have done at Treblinka?  Maybe put a pontoon bridge across the Bug river and send the Jews into the former Soviet territory? But if the plan was to send all the Jews into Russia, why not just send them to the east from Bialystok? Maybe the Nazis didn’t want to send the Bialystok Jews as a separate group, but wanted to keep the Jews together when they were “transported to the East.”

When Germany began offering reparations to the Jews for the Holocaust, there were many Jews who claimed reparations but were rejected because they had come from Russia to Germany after the war.  According to the official history of the Holocaust, these people were dead, so they could not claim reparations from Germany.

Now there are ads on TV asking for donations for the Holocaust survivors in Russia.  There is no mention of how these survivors got there, but the scene in the ad, that shows the tattoo on the arm of one of the Holocaust survivors in Russia, has recently been deleted from the ad.

August 21, 2010

New book about a Polish Jew who survived seven Nazi camps

Filed under: Dachau, Holocaust — Tags: , , , — furtherglory @ 7:35 am

You can read all about a new book entitled Treblinka Survivor, the Life and Death of Hershl Sperling here. The subject of the book, who changed his name to Henry Sperling when he moved to Scotland, was a Polish Jew who was first sent to the Czestochowa ghetto in Poland, and from there to Treblinka in 1942. Sperling escaped from Treblinka, during a revolt by the prisoners who worked there, just before the camp was closed.  After he was captured and arrested, Sperling was first sent to a penal camp, and then to the Auschwitz main camp.  From there he was sent to Birkenau (Auschwitz II camp), then transferred to Sachsenhausen, from where he was sent to Kaufering. Near the end of World War II, he was sent to the main Dachau camp, where he was finally liberated.

Sperling’s story parallels that of Jankiel Wiernik (Yankel Vernik)  who was transported from the Warsaw ghetto to Treblinka. Wiernik was from  Czestochowa, Poland.  He also survived Treblinka and after the war, he wrote a book entitled A Year In Treblinka. Despite his age, Wiernik had been assigned to the work squad, composed mainly of young men, which had to carry the bodies to the mass graves.  Sperling had been assigned to sorting the clothes taken from the prisoners at Treblinka.

I haven’t read the book yet, but Sperling was probably among the 60,000 prisoners who were marched out of Auschwitz-Birkenau on January 18, 1945, just before the Soviet liberators arrived. He was supposedly taken to Sachsenhausen, but Kaufering was the name of 11 sub-camps of Dachau, so he was probably sent from Dachau to one of the 11 Kaufering sub-camps.

The Nazis referred to Treblinka as a Durchgangslager (transit camp).  It was one of the three Operation Reinhard camps that were set up after the Wannsee Conference, at which the “Final Solution to the Jewish Question” and the “transportation of the Jews to the East” was discussed. The other two Operation Reinhard camps were Belzec and Sobibor.  The headquarters of the Operation was in Lublin.

By March 1943, Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler  had completed the resettlement of 629,000 ethnic Germans from the Baltic countries into the Polish territory that had been incorporated into the Greater German Reich in October 1939. He had also deported 365,000 Poles from the part of Poland that was incorporated into the Greater German Reich to occupied Poland, and had deported 295,000 citizens from Luxembourg and the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, which were also incorporated into the Greater German Reich. After all this had been accomplished, Dr. Korherr, who was Himmler’s chief statistician, made a report on what had happened to the Jews in Eastern Poland; this was the famous Korherr Report.

In 2000, a document called the Höfle Telegram was discovered by Holocaust historians in the Public Records Office in Kew, England. This document consists of two intercepted encoded messages, both of which were sent from Lublin on January 11, 1943 by SS-Sturmbannführer Hermann Höfle, and marked “state secret.” One message was sent to Adolf Eichmann in the Reich Security Main Office (RSHA) in Berlin and the other to SS-Oberststurmbannführer Franz Heim, deputy commander of the Security Police (SIPO) at the headquarters of German-occupied Poland in Krakow.

The encoded messages gave the number of arrivals at the Operation Reinhard camps during the previous two weeks and the following totals for Jews sent to the Treblinka, Belzec, Sobibor and Lublin (Majdanek) camps in 1942:

Treblinka, 71,355; Belzec, 434,500; Sobibor, 101,370; and Majdanek, 24,733.

The number for Treblinka, 71,355, was a typographical error; the correct number should be 713,555, based on the total given. The total “arrivals” for the four camps matches the total of 1,274,166 “evacuated” Jews in the Korherr Report.

Samuel Rajzman, one of the few survivors of Treblinka, testified at the Nuremberg International Military Tribunal that “Between July and December 1942, an average of 3 transports of 60 cars each arrived every day. In 1943 the transports arrived more rarely.” Rajzman stated that “On an average, I believe they killed in Treblinka from ten to twelve thousand persons daily.”

The following testimony was given by Samuel Rajzman at the Nuremberg International Military Tribunal:

Transports arrived there every day; their number depended on the number of trains arriving; sometimes three, four, or five trains filled exclusively with Jews — from Czechoslovakia, Germany, Greece, and Poland. Immediately after their arrival, the people had to leave the trains in 5 minutes and line up on the platform. All those who were driven from the cars were divided into groups — men, children, and women, all separate. They were all forced to strip immediately, and this procedure continued under the lashes of the German guards’ whips. Workers who were employed in this operation immediately picked up all the clothes and carried them away to barracks. Then the people were obliged to walk naked through the street to the gas chambers.

At the camp, a storehouse was “disguised as a train station,” according to a pamphlet which I purchased at the Visitor’s Center in 1998. The fake station was designed to fool the Jews into thinking that they had arrived at a transit camp, from where they were going to be “transported to the East.”

Regarding the fake train station, Samuel Rajzman testified as follows at the Nuremberg IMT:

At first there were no signboards whatsoever at the station, but a few months later the commander of the camp, one Kurt Franz, built a first-class railroad station with signboards. The barracks where the clothing was stored had signs reading “restaurant,” “ticket office,” “telegraph,” “telephone,” and so forth. There were even train schedules for the departure and the arrival of trains to and from Grodno, Suwalki, Vienna, and Berlin.

According to Rajzman’s testimony at Nuremberg, “When Treblinka became very well known, they hung up a huge sign with the inscription Obermaidanek.” Maidanek was the German name for Majdanek; it was a concentration camp on the outskirts of Lublin, the headquarters of the Operation Reinhard camps.  Rajzman explained that “the persons who arrived in transports soon found out that it was not a fashionable station, but that it was a place of death” and for this reason, the sign was intended to calm the victims.

In spite of all this effort to reassure the victims, the SS soldiers at Treblinka were allegedly allowed to grab babies from the arms of their mothers and bash their heads in. The first person to be tried for war crimes committed at Treblinka was Josef Hirtreiter, who was put on trial in a German court in Frankfurt am Main, and sentenced on March 3, 1951 to life in prison. Based on the testimony of survivors, Hirtreiter was found guilty of killing young children at Treblinka, during the unloading of the trains, by holding them by the feet and smashing their heads against the boxcars.

The pamphlet from the Visitor’s Center says that “In a relatively short time of its existence the camp took a total of over 800,000 victims of Jews from Poland, Austria, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, France, Greece, Jugoslavia, Germany and the Soviet Union.”

Holocaust historian Raul Hilberg put the number of deaths at Treblinka at a minimum of 750,000. Other sources say that the total number of deaths was 870,000. Although the Nazis kept detailed records of everything, they did not record the deaths by gassing.

The following quote is from the same pamphlet that I obtained from the Visitor’s Center:

The extermination camp in Treblinka was built in the middle of 1942 near the already existing labour camp. It was surrounded by fence and rows of barbed wire along which there were watchtowers with machine guns every ten metres. The main part of the camp constituted two buildings in which there were 13 gas chambers altogether. Two thousand people could be put to death at a time in them. Death by suffocation with fumes came after 10 – 15 minutes. First the bodies of the victims were buried, later were cremated on big grates out of doors. The ashes were mixed witch (sic) sand and buried in one spot.

Martin Gilbert wrote in his book entitled Holocaust Journey that the gas chambers at Treblinka utilized carbon monoxide from diesel engines. Many writers say that these diesel engines were obtained from captured Russian submarines, but according to the Nizkor Project, they were large 500 BHP engines from captured Soviet T-34 tanks. However, at the Nuremberg International Military Tribunal proceedings against the major Nazi war criminals, which began in November 1945, the Nazis were charged by the Soviet Union with murdering Jews at Treblinka in “steam chambers,” not gas chambers. Steam chambers were used at Auschwitz and Theresienstadt for disinfecting the clothing of the prisoners.

The pamphlet from the Visitor’s Center  has this information:

Killing took place with great speed. The whole process of killing the people, starting from thier (sic) arrival at the camp railroad till removing the corpses from the gas chambers, lasted about 2 hours. Treblinka was known among the Nazis as an example of good organization of a death camp. It was a real extermination centre.