Scrapbookpages Blog

December 5, 2017

This 99-year-old Holocaust survivor who was imprisoned for being gay ‘doesn’t deserve compensation’

Filed under: Germany, Holocaust — Tags: , — furtherglory @ 10:45 am

https://i2.wp.com/www.pinknews.co.uk/images/2017/06/GettyImages-541091242-650x411.jpg

http://www.pinknews.co.uk/2017/12/05/this-99-year-old-holocaust-survivor-who-was-imprisoned-for-being-gay-doesnt-deserve-compensation/

The following is a quote from a Pink News article which you can read by following the link above, dated December 5th, 2017.

Begin Quote

He survived the Holocaust, only to spend months in prison for being gay when he returned home.

And now, 99-year-old Wolfgang Lauinger has been denied compensation by Germany.

End Quote

(Creative Commons)

Wolfgang Lauinger  wants money from the German Government.

The article is a little vague, but apparently Lauinger “survived” the Holocaust by moving to America, but when he got back to Germany in 1950, he was locked up in Germany for being gay in public.  Now he wants money.

It is unclear in the article why the Germans don’t want to pay him , but apparently, he was never actually convicted.  He just spent 5 months in jail while awaiting trial.

October 8, 2017

Why is there so much renewed interest in the Mauthausen concentration camp?

Filed under: Germany, Holocaust — Tags: — furtherglory @ 11:07 am

My blog post today was prompted by this news article: http://www.israelnationalnews.com/News/News.aspx/236444

Mauthausen concentration camp

Main entrance into Mauthausen camp

I have been reading recent news articles about the Mauthausen concentration camp. I have visited this camp and I have previously written about it on my website and on my blog.

If you want to know more about Mauthausen, start reading about it on my website at http://www.scrapbookpages.com/Mauthausen/KZMauthausen/History/FirstPrisoners.html

The following quote is from the web page cited above:

Begin quote

First prisoners at Mauthausen

The first prisoners to be registered in the Mauthausen concentration camp were 300 German criminals who arrived on August 8, 1938 after being transferred from the Dachau Concentration Camp near Munich. By the end of the year, 780 more prisoners had been transferred to Mauthausen from the Dachau and Sachsenhausen camps. Many of these early prisoners had been sentenced by the German courts to hard labor after being convicted of committing a violent crime.

According to Christian Bernadac, a former inmate of the camp, who wrote a book called “The 186 Steps,” the first prisoner to be registered at Mauthausen was Wilhelm Baier who was assigned the number 3. The numbers 1 and 2 were not used. Baier had been sentenced to 30 years hard labor in 1920 after committing what Bernadac called a “blood crime.” Prisoner number 4 was Joseph Wboblowski. The next three prisoners to be registered were Baum, Bartel and Bartosch, all convicted German criminals who had been sentenced to hard labor.

Another category of prisoners in the Nazi concentration camps were the so-called “career criminals.” On June 17, 1936, Adolf Hitler had signed a decree which made Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler the new Chief of the German Police within the Reich Ministry of Interior. According to Peter Padfield, author of the book “Himmler,” the new Police Chief “saw his task as preventing crime before it happened by shutting away habitual criminals, preserving the Volk from contamination by shutting away subversives who might corrupt them, picking up vagrants, the ‘work shy’ and ‘anti-socials’ and putting them to work in his camps, and in addition supervising public morals.”

Padfield wrote that Himmler’s first large-scale action as Police Chief was the “nationwide round-up of professional criminals.” On March 9, 1937, Himmler gave the order to arrest around 2,000 “professional criminals” who had committed two or more crimes, but were now free after having served their sentences. They were arrested without charges and sent to a concentration camp for an indeterminate time.

End quote

School children in America today are taught that the Germans were bad people because they put homosexuals in prison.

The following quote is from my website:

Begin quote

Another category of German citizens, who were persecuted by Heinrich Himmler, in his capacity as Chief of the German Police, was homosexuals.

Paragraph 175 of the German criminal code, which had been in effect since 1871, made it a crime for men to publicly engage in gay sex or for male prostitutes to solicit men for sex.

Himmler began enforcing this law and a total of about 10,000 homosexuals were eventually sent to concentration camps such as Dachau, Sachsenhausen and Mauthausen for at least 6 months of “rehabilitation.”

According to Bernadac, they “received regular visits from the medical commissions” who attempted to change their sexual orientation because the Nazis believed that these prisoners were gay by choice.

The first homosexual prisoner to be registered at Mauthausen was Georg Bautler, Prisoner No. 130. The first Jew to be sent to Mauthausen was also incarcerated because he had broken the German law under Paragraph 175.

End quote from my website

April 16, 2016

people were beheaded in the Holocaust because they were gay

Filed under: Germany, Holocaust — Tags: — furtherglory @ 12:38 pm

I will bet that none of the readers of my blog know that gay men were beheaded during the Holocaust. I didn’t know it either — until I read it in a news article here.

The following quote is from the website, cited above:

Begin quote

People were killed in gas chambers, they were beheaded just because of their religion, because they were a gypsy, a political dissident or they were gay,” said WVU Hillel Director Richard Guttman. “They were just killed. Half of the people killed were Jews, but the other half were regular people, so we try to remember by reading names.”

End quote

Did you get that? Half of the people who were killed in the Holocaust were “regular people.”  Some of the victims of the Holocaust were “regular people” — as opposed to what? Exceptional people? This article seems to be saying that half of the people killed in the Holocaust were goyim, who were not even human.

Were gay people deliberately killed in the Holocaust? Not that I know of.

The German law, which made homosexuality a crime, had been on the books since 1871 when the German states were united into a country by the King of Prussia, following the victory over France in the Franco-Prussian war.

After the Nazis came to power, a new law was made, which said that men who had been arrested twice, for any crime, would be sent to a concentration camp, after they had completed their second prison sentence. They would be held, in a concentration camp, for at least six months in order to be rehabilitated.

This was the law under which homosexuals and Gypsies would up at Dachau, and later, at other camps. 

The law that was broken by the Gypsies was the new law which said that every man in Germany should have a permanent residence and a visible means of support. The Gypsies traveled around in wagons; they did not have permanent homes.

The German law, known as Paragraph 175, made it a crime to PUBLICLY engage in homosexual acts.  It was also a crime for male prostitutes to solicit men for sex.  Some of the men, who were sent to a concentration camp for soliciting men for sex, were later released after it was determined that they were not homosexual themselves.

The following quote is also from the news article:

Begin quote

What makes the Holocaust unique, though, is the fact the Nazi Party kept diligent notes on everyone they killed, and while morbid, it inadvertently made it possible for the victims to be honored in a way other genocide victims can’t.

End quote

It is my understanding that the “Nazi Party” did not keep diligent notes on anyone that they killed.  I don’t think that the “Nazi Party” admitted to killing anyone in the camps. People died in the camps, but the deaths were due to disease, particularly typhus.

As the closest concentration camp to Berlin, Sachsenhausen had more homosexual prisoners than any of the other camps. A total of approximately 10,000 homosexuals were sent to all the Nazi concentration camps combined during the 12 years of the Third Reich.

In an era when homosexuals were still in the closet in all the countries of the world, Berlin was a mecca for gays. The movie Cabaret depicts the gay scene in Berlin before the Nazis came to power. It was based on a book entitled “Goodbye to Berlin” by Christopher Isherwood, who lived an openly gay lifestyle in the capital city. Only male homosexuals who broke the German law by flaunting their lifestyle in public were arrested. After their second arrest and prison term, they were sent to the concentration camps; no lesbians were ever sent to the camps, solely for being lesbians.

Some of the young men, who were sent to Sachsenhausen after they had been imprisoned for public homosexual activity, were actually Strichjunge, or male prostitutes, from Berlin.

According to the memoirs of Rudolf Höss, the Commandant of Auschwitz:

The strict camp life and the hard work quickly reeducated this type [homosexual men]. Most of them worked very hard and took great care not to get into trouble so that they could be released as soon as possible. They also avoided associating with those afflicted with this depravity and wanted to make it known that they had nothing to do with homosexuals. In this way countless rehabilitated young men could be released without having a relapse.

June 27, 2015

Bergen-Belsen — where homosexuals was (sic) interned by the Nazis …

Filed under: Dachau, Germany — Tags: — furtherglory @ 10:29 am

The title of my blog post today is a quote from a news article which you can read in full at: http://www.pinknews.co.uk/2015/06/26/queen-pays-sombre-visit-to-bergen-belsen-concentration-camp/

This quote is from the news article, sited above:

Bergen-Belsen – where homosexuals was interned by the Nazis along with a number of other minority groups – was liberated by British troops 1945. Gay prisoners were not set free at the end of the Second World War, unlike other groups, and were made to serve out their sentences.

[…]

Approximately 50,000 served prison sentences as “convicted homosexuals”, and around 5,000 to 15,000 gay men were imprisoned in concentration camps across Germany and Nazi occupied countries. Many gay men were imprisoned by the allied authorities after the liberation of the concentration camps as homosexuality remained illegal.

Statue of the

Statue of the “unknown prisoner” at Dachau; the model for this statue was Kurt Lange, a homosexual

The statue created by Fritz Koelle, known as the “Unknown Inmate,” which is shown in the photo above, was erected at the Dachau memorial site in 1950. The statue is located just north of the old crematorium where the bodies of dead prisoners were burned.

The words on the base of the statue, shown above, when translated into English, mean “To honor the dead, to admonish the living.”

The model for the statue was Kurt Lange, a homosexual who had been imprisoned at Dachau.

Under a new German law, after the Nazis came to power, all criminals who had served two prison terms were sent to a concentration camp for at least six months of “rehabilitation.”

One category of German citizens, who were prosecuted persecuted by Heinrich Himmler, in his capacity as Chief of the German Police, was homosexuals.

Paragraph 175 of the German criminal code, which had been in effect since 1871, made it a crime for men to publicly engage in gay sex or for male prostitutes to solicit men for sex.

It is important to note that men were only arrested if they were having sex in public, or if they were soliciting men on the street. Some of the men who were sent to a concentration camp under this law were not homosexual; they were male prostitutes.

Himmler began enforcing Paragraph 175 and a total of about 10,000 homosexuals were eventually sent to concentration camps such as Dachau, Sachsenhausen and Mauthausen for at least 6 months of “rehabilitation.”  They received regular visits from the medical commissions, who attempted to change their sexual orientation because the Nazis believed that these prisoners were gay by choice.

The first homosexual prisoner to be registered at Mauthausen was Georg Bautler, Prisoner No. 130. The first Jew to be sent to Mauthausen was also incarcerated because he had broken the German law under Paragraph 175.

May 4, 2014

“men imprisoned at Dachau for being gay” Updated

Filed under: Dachau, Germany, Holocaust — Tags: , , , — furtherglory @ 5:20 pm
Jews object to the use of a pink triangle combined with blue and white stripes by Urban Outfitters

Jews object to the use of a pink triangle combined with blue and white stripes by Urban Outfitters

The photo above appears on a page in a newspaper with the headline:

ADL calls on Urban Outfitters to pull tapestry evoking Holocaust prisoner apparel

This quote is from the newspaper article about the tapestry shown in the photo above:

The Anti-Defamation League again called out Urban Outfitters, the U.S. clothing-and-lifestyle-merchandise retailer, this time asking the chain to pull from its shelves a tapestry with a design that evokes apparel worn in the Nazi concentration camps during World War II.

The tapestry “is ‘eerily reminiscent’ of the … gray and white stripes and pink triangles that gay male prisoners were forced to wear” in the camps, ADL said in a Monday statement.

“Whether intentional or not, this gray and white striped pattern and pink triangle combination is deeply offensive and should not be mainstreamed into popular culture,” said Abraham H. Foxman, the group’s national director, who is a Holocaust survivor.

ADL said it sent a letter to the retailer’s president and chief executive, Richard A. Hayne, expressing concern about the company’s use of Holocaust imagery.

Continue reading my origianl blog post:

What’s wrong with the quote, from a Santa Barbara newspaper, in the title of my blog post?

Men were NOT imprisoned at Dachau for being gay. In the old days, gay men in Germany were arrested for breaking the German law called Paragraph 175 which banned homosexual acts in public, as well as banning men from soliciting other men in public for gay sex.  Paragragh 175 had been on the books in Germany since 1871, but it was not being enforced until the Nazis took over.  Even then, gay men who were not having sex in pubic were not arrested.

I previously blogged about the Monument at Dachau which shows the triangles worn by the prisoners, except for the black triangle worn by criminals and the pink triangle worn by gay prisoners.

In a Santa Barbara newspaper article, which you can see in full here, this quote caught my attention:

How the community of [Dachau] survivors chooses to commemorate is yet another issue. At Dachau, men imprisoned for being gay were required to wear a badge featuring a pink downward-pointing triangle (Jews wore two triangles superimposed to create a yellow star). The pink triangle has since been reclaimed as an international symbol of gay pride and the gay rights movement. A memorial sculpture commissioned in the 1960s features colored triangles that represent the various categories of prisoners. Conspicuously absent, however, was the pink one.

“At that time, many still saw homosexuality as a crime,” [Harold] Marcuse said. “Pink was banned by the survivors who commissioned the memorial. When gay activists wanted to put up a pink granite triangle memorial in that space in the 1970s, they were refused. It had to be placed in the Protestant memorial church at the far end of the former camp.”

Twenty years later, that granite panel was moved to a special memorial room in the museum.

Pink triangle in back room of Dachau museum

Pink triangle in “special memorial room” of Dachau museum

The Jews at Dachau did not wear two triangles superimposed to create a yellow star.

I took the photo below in the Dachau Museum in 1997.  It shows all the triangles used for badges in the Dachau camp.

A poster in the 1965 Dachau Museum

A poster in the 1965 Dachau Museum

Chart show the badges worn by concentration camp prisoners

Chart show the badges worn by concentration camp prisoners in all the camps

The following explanation of the Dachau badges is from my own website scrapbookpages.com:

The top row of triangles in the photo above shows all the colors of the badges worn by the prisoners in all the Nazi concentration camps. Red was for Communists, Social Democrats, anarchists, and other “enemies of the state”; green was for German criminals; blue was for foreign forced laborers; brown was for Gypsies; pink was for homosexuals; purple was for Jehovah’s Witnesses and black was for asocials, a catch-all term for vagrants, bums, prostitutes, hobos, perverts, alcoholics who were living on the streets, or anyone who didn’t have a permanent address. The “work-shy,” or those who were arrested because they refused to work, wore a black badge.

The second row on the chart shows the same colors with a matching bar over the triangle. The bar denoted a “second-timer” or a prisoner who had been released and was then arrested again for a second offense. These prisoners were isolated from the general camp population and were not allowed privileges. Their work assignments were much more difficult. Many of the prisoners, including some Jews in the early days at Dachau, were released after they had been “rehabilitated.”

The black circles under the badges in the third row denote prisoners who were assigned to the penal colony. They were given the most difficult work assignments, usually in a rock quarry or gravel pit. Many of the camp locations were chosen because they were near a quarry which could furnish building materials for the new buildings Hitler was planning for Berlin and Linz, Austria, his former home town. Dachau had a gravel pit which was located where the Carmelite convent now stands.

The fourth row shows yellow triangles with each of the regular triangle colors placed on the top, forming a six-pointed star. These badges were worn by the Jews and showed their classification as political prisoners, criminals, foreign forced laborers, homosexuals or asocials.

A combination of a red triangle over a yellow triangle meant a Jewish political prisoner. The black dot below it meant that the Jewish prisoner had been assigned to the punishment detail.

A red triangle pointing upward designated a non-Jewish German political prisoner. The letter P on a red triangle pointing downward designated a Polish political prisoner.

January 15, 2014

Memorial in Tel Aviv honors gays and lesbians

A news article in The Times of Israel tells about a new memorial in Tel Aviv, which is shown in the photo below:

Monument to gays and lesbians in Tel Aviv

Pink Triangle Monument to gays and lesbians in Tel Aviv

Tel Aviv unveils memorial to gay Holocaust victims
Landmark is the first in Israel to deal universally with Jewish and non-Jewish individuals persecuted by the Nazis

TEL AVIV — Israel’s cultural and financial capital has unveiled a memorial honoring gays and lesbians persecuted by the Nazis during World War II.

Authorities in Tel Aviv unveiled the memorial Friday. It shows a pink triangle — the symbol gays were forced to wear in concentration camps. Writing on it in English, Hebrew and German reads: “In memory of those persecuted by the Nazi regime for their sexual orientation and gender identity.”

Did those hateful Nazis actually persecute innocent men and women for their “sexual orientation and gender identify”?  NO!  They persecuted criminals who broke the German law, known as Paragraph 175, which had been on the books since 1871 when the German states were first united into a country.  Many other countries, including the United States of America, had similar laws which made homosexual acts a crime.

Did the evil Nazis go around peeking through bedroom windows to find men who were breaking the law known as Paragraph 175?  NO!  They arrested men who were having gay sex in public, in bathhouses and on stage in night clubs.  As far as I know, women were not arrested in Germany, nor in any other country, for being lesbians.

The main concentration camp, where homosexual men were sent, was Sachsenhausen, the camp in Oranienburg, near Berlin.  When I visited the Sachsenhausen Memorial Site in 1999, I picked up an Information Leaflet, which told about  the Klinkerwerk [brick works], which was a satellite camp of Sachsenhausen.

According to the leaflet, the Klinkerwerk satellite camp was used for “… the deliberate annihilation of certain prisoners groups.”

“From July to September 1942, the systematically planned murders of some 180 to 200 homosexual prisoners were carried out in the Klinkerwerk satellite camp.” according to the Information Leaflet.

As the closest concentration camp to Berlin, Sachsenhausen had more homosexual prisoners than any of the other camps. A total of approximately 10,000 homosexuals were sent to all the Nazi concentration camps combined during the 12 years of the Third Reich, according to a display which I saw in the Holocaust Museum in Washington, DC. in the year 2000.

In an era when homosexuals were still in the closet in all the countries of the world, Berlin was a mecca for gays. The movie Cabaret depicts the gay scene in Berlin before the Nazis came to power. It was based on a book entitled Goodbye to Berlin by Christopher Isherwood, who lived an openly gay lifestyle in Berlin, the capital city of Germany.

After the Nazis came to power in Germany in 1933, male homosexuals who broke the German law, by flaunting their lifestyle in public, were arrested. After their second arrest and the completion of their second prison term, homosexual men were sent to a concentration camp for six months.  As far as I know, no lesbians were ever sent to a concentration camp, solely for being a lesbian.

Some of the young men, who were sent to Sachsenhausen after they had been imprisoned for public homosexual activity, were actually Strichjunge, or male prostitutes, from Berlin.

This quote is from the memoirs of Rudolf Höss:

The strict camp life and the hard work quickly reeducated this type [ male prostitutes]. Most of them worked very hard and took great care not to get into trouble so that they could be released as soon as possible. They also avoided associating with those afflicted with this depravity and wanted to make it known that they had nothing to do with homosexuals. In this way countless rehabilitated young men could be released without having a relapse.

In 1943 the brick factory [Klinkerwerk] was partly converted into an armament factory where hand grenades were produced. On April 10, 1945, an Allied bombing raid destroyed the armament factory and the brick factory. About 200 prisoners of the concentration camp lost their lives in the raid.

Homosexuals were also sent to Dachau, but when the Dachau camp was converted into a Memorial Site, they were not honored.

Pink triangle memorial in Dachau Museum

Pink triangle memorial in the Dachau Museum

Notice the pick triangle on the right in the photograph above, taken at Dachau in 2003.  At the bottom of the plaque, the words read “To the homosexual victims of National Socialism, the homosexual initiatives of Munich, 1985.” The inscription at the top reads “Beaten to death, killed again by silence.”

The inscription on the triangle refers to the fact that homosexuals in all the Nazi concentration camps received very harsh treatment from their fellow prisoners, and after the war, the homosexuals were not included in the commemoration of the victims. The pink triangle at Dachau was first placed, in a small room, inside the Museum on June 18, 1995.

In the early days of the Dachau camp, the Kapos, who supervised the other prisoners, were German criminals, who typically treated the homosexuals very badly. Later the internal administration of the Dachau camp was taken over by the Communist inmates, who did not honor the homosexuals.

After the war, it was the Communists who designed and supervised the Dachau Memorial Site, which was set up in 1965. There is no pink triangle on the bas relief sculpture at the International Monument at Dachau, and also no green triangle in honor of the German criminals. The new 2003 Dachau museum included  both the homosexuals and the German criminals as victims of the Nazis.

This quote from the news article in The Times of Israel explains why the city of Tel Aviv was chosen for a memorial to the gays and lesbians, who were persecuted by the Nazis:

The landmark joins similar memorials in Amsterdam, Berlin, San Francisco and Sydney dedicated to gay victims of the Holocaust. While Israel has scores of Holocaust monuments, the Tel Aviv memorial is the first that deals universally with Jewish and non-Jewish victims alike.

“This will be the first and only memorial site in Israel to mention the victims of the Nazis who were persecuted for anything other than being Jewish,” Lev told Haaretz. “As a cosmopolitan city and an international gay center, Tel Aviv will offer a memorial site that is universal in its essence. As far as I’m concerned, it’s not a monument, but a place — a place of quiet that will invite visitors to sit, contemplate, reflect and be in solitude.”

Tel Aviv has a vibrant gay scene and is a top international destination for gay tourists.

Many Germans referred to Hitler’s Germany as a paradise.  Hitler tried to clean up the country.  The YouTube video below is from the movie Cabaret.

October 19, 2013

Glenn Beck in trouble again, as he talks about the purple triangle, used in the Nazi camps

Filed under: Dachau, Germany, Holocaust — Tags: , , , , — furtherglory @ 10:09 am
Purple triangle, worn by Jehovah's Witnesses, shown in sculpture at Dachau

Purple triangle, worn by Jehovah’s Witnesses, shown in sculpture at Dachau

Glen Beck is shown in this YouTube video, as he explains why Jehovah’s Witnesses were put into concentration camps and forced to wear a purple triangle on their clothing to identify themselves.

Glen Beck was obviously confused because the German name for the Jehovah’s Witnesses, which was Bibelforscher, is translated as “Bible Student” in English.  The Nazis did NOT put people into concentration camps for studying the Bible.  You can read about the persecution of the Jehovah’s Witnesses on Wikipedia at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Persecution_of_Jehovah%27s_Witnesses_in_Nazi_Germany

This news article, which you can read in full here,  explains how Glen Beck offended people in the audience when he talked about the triangles used to identify prisoners in the Nazi concentration camps:

This quote is from the news article:

As many people know, the Nazis used colored triangles to indicate what group a prisoner — who was likely to die — was from. Perhaps the most well-known is the pink triangle, which indicated the person whose prison uniform bore the patch was homosexual — or believed to be. An estimated 5,000–15,000 people wearing the Nazi’s pink triangle were murdered during the Holocaust.

“Does anybody know what the purple triangle was?,” Beck asked his audience. Someone yells, “Gay.”

“No, not gay — that was pink,” Beck responds.

The crowd laughs.

Did the mostly religious right Christian evangelist conservatives in Beck’s audience find the prospect of 15,000 gay people about to be murdered by Hitler’s thugs during the Holocaust to be amusing — enough so that they had to break out in laughter?

“It’s hard to know exactly what motivated each person in that room to laugh at that moment,” Sharona Coutts, Director of Investigations and Research at RH Reality Check writes in “Why Did ‘Values Voters’ Attendees Laugh About Gays Being Killed by Nazis?”

[quote from RH Reality Check] ”Was it because it seems funny that gay people were also murdered in the Nazi concentration camps? Was it because of the apparent absurdity, in their point of view, of confusing ‘legitimate’ victims of the Holocaust (Jews, Christians, people with disabilities) with those who they believe might really deserve to be killed? What part of the audience’s “values” made that reference to gay people seem so funny?”

“People with disabilities” were sent to “Nazi concentration camps”?  No, people with disabilities were sent to places like Hartheim Castle.

Beck also says, in the video, that the Nazis used a “black triangle” to designate “anarchists”.

According to information given at the Dachau Memorial Site, a black triangle was worn by the “work-shy” who were called “asocial.”

I previously blogged about the Nazis and homosexuals at https://furtherglory.wordpress.com/2013/08/08/hitler-started-with-the-gays-say-what/

Why did those evil Nazis discriminate against the innocent Jehovah’s Witnesses, who never did them any harm?

The main camp, where the Jehovah’s Witnesses were sent, was Sachsenhausen, which was near Berlin.  At the Sachsenhausen Memorial Site, there is a memorial stone in honor of a prisoner named August Dickman who was executed because he was a member of International Bible Students Association who refused to serve in the Germany army. The memorial stone says that he was a “conscientious objector.”  He was not executed because he was a Jehovah’s Witness, but rather, because he had refused to serve in the German Army.

In America, the Jehovah’s Witnesses and the Japanese internment camp prisoners, who refused to serve in the American army, were sent to federal prisons where they were forced to work at hard labor, but none were executed.

According to Rudolf Höss, who was an adjutant in the Sachsenhausen camp before he was transferred to Auschwitz, there were a large number of Jehovah’s Witnesses in the Sachsenhausen camp.

Rudolf Höss wrote in his memoir that the Jehovah’s Witnesses were sent to concentration camps, beginning in 1937, because they were “using religion to undermine the will of the people for military preparedness,” by recruiting others to their beliefs about not serving in the military.

Höss claimed that only those who were actively preaching against the state and recruiting others were imprisoned.

When World War II started, all concentration camp prisoners who were fit for military service were drafted. Höss wrote: “A large number of them (the Jehovah’s Witnesses) refused to serve in the military and were, therefore, sentenced to death by Himmler as draft dodgers.” Those who were willing to renounce their ideas against the military, or to serve in the army, were released.

The German hardened criminals (Schwehrverbrecher), who were sent to concentration camps, wore green triangles, but they are not represented in the Dachau sculpture.

Triangle sculpture at Dachau Memorial Site

Triangle sculpture at Dachau Memorial Site

In July 1936, just before the Olympics started in Berlin, 120 homeless bums were picked up off the streets and brought to Dachau. They were designated as “work-shy” and given black triangles, but, as you can see in the photo above, they are not honored in the sculpture.

Homosexuals, arrested under Paragraph 175 of the German Penal Code, wore pink triangles, but they were not honored at the Dachau Memorial Site until just recently.

In 1937, a new rule was made that criminals who had been arrested twice and had served two sentences would have to spend at least six months in a concentration camp for “rehabilitation.” The homosexuals in the concentration camps were classified as criminals and did not receive reparations from the German government after the war.

Brown badges were worn by Gypsies, although the first Gypsies brought to Dachau wore a black triangle because they were men who had been arrested for being “work-shy.”

The prisoners used the badge colors to refer to their affiliation. The Communists were the reds and their rivals, the German criminals, were the greens.

A bar over the top of the triangle meant that an inmate was a second-timer, or a prisoner who had served time in the camp, been released, and had then been arrested again; the second time they would be in the punishment block and would be treated more harshly.

The circles in the sculpture represent the circles that were worn below the triangle by prisoners who were assigned to the camp penal colony. These prisoners were assigned to the hardest work in the camps, usually to the rock quarries or the gravel pits. At Dachau, the gravel pit was where the Carmelite convent now stands.

 

August 9, 2013

the misaprehension that homosexual men were murdered by the Nazis for being gay

It has come to my attention, from reading comments made on my blog, that there is a belief that homosexual men were arrested, in Nazi Germany, simply because of their sexual orientation, and that hundreds of thousands of them were murdered in concentrations camps, sometimes in the gas chamber.

How many homosexual men were actually “murdered” by the Nazis?  None.  A total of around 10,000 homosexual men were sent to Dachau and other camps, but no one knows how many died of disease or other causes while they were in a camp.

When I visited the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in the year 2000, there was a small section of exhibits entitled “Enemies of the State.” This section was devoted to the non-Jewish people who were persecuted by the Nazis; there were separate displays about the homosexuals and the Gypsies.  I vaguely recall that there were pictures of homosexual men, who had been sent to concentration camps, but I didn’t photograph this display.

“Communists, Social Democrats, trade unionists, liberals, pacifists, dissenting clergy, and Jehovah’s Witnesses” were listed in the reading material, in the exhibit, as “Enemies of the State,” but no details were given and there were no pictures of them.

There was a significant number of Communists incarcerated as political prisoners in the major German concentration camps at Dachau, Buchenwald and Sachsenhausen, but you would never know it from seeing the USHMM exhibits.

Not mentioned in the USHMM exhibits were the asocials, the work-shy or the criminals (including homosexual men) who had been sent to a concentration camp after they finished their prison time for their second offense. In the year 2000 when I was there, the USHMM did not mention that homosexuals were sent to a concentration camp, ONLY if and when they had served two terms in prison from breaking the law known as Paragraph 175.

This quote is from a recent comment on my blog:  “There are several ‘homo ‘ monuments in Holland to the Gay men murdered by the Nazis . However when the event was actually academically investigated it was found to be the reverse.”

The photos below show one of the “homo” monuments in Amsterdam.

A pink triangle monument in front of a church in Amsterdam

A pink triangle monument in front of a church in Amsterdam

A pink triangle at ground level in front of the same church in Amsterdam

A pink triangle at ground level in front of the same church in Amsterdam

I didn’t take a photo of the third triangle which completes this huge sculpture in front of a church, which is within shouting distance of the Anne Frank house in Amsterdam.  Not to worry, churches are not used any more for religious services in Amsterdam, so it’s O.K. to have a monument in front of a church.

A link to this website was provided by the reader who made the comment:  http://balder.org/judea/Nazi-Extermination-Of-Homosexuals-A-Myth.php

This quote is from the website cited above:

On December 2, 1979, the Broadway Play Bent opened at the New Apollo Theater in New York City. The starring role was played by Richard Gere.

Bent is the tale of a German homosexual named Max who is arrested and sent to Dachau. To avoid the stigma of wearing the pink triangle, Max denies his homosexuality and opts instead to claim he is Jewish. (According to the logic of Bent, the status of homosexuals in the concentration camps was even worse than that of Jews.) Max falls in love with another homosexual inmate and the play depicts their trials and tribulations. At the end, Max reclaims his inverted status as a homosexual and commits suicide by falling on an electrified fence.

“…a German homosexual…is arrested and sent to Dachau”?

That could not have happened.  Homosexuals were not sent to Dachau, nor anywhere else, solely because they were homosexual.  Germany had a law, called Paragraph 175, which made it a crime to have homosexual sex in public or for male prostitutes to solicit men for gay sex.  Men who had been arrested twice, for breaking a law that had been on the books in Germany since 1871, and had been sent to prison twice, were then sent to Dachau for a minimum of 6 months for rehabilitation, after they were released from prison.

In the 1930s and 40s, every country in the world had a law against homosexual acts.  Germany was not enforcing its law (Paragraph 175) and, as a result, Berlin became a mecca for homosexual men.  At that time, the word “gay” did not mean homosexual.

This quote is also from the website, cited above:

In 1981, the myth was given another major boost in Frank Rector’s widely distributed book The Nazi Extermination of Homosexuals (3). Rector wrote:

“It seems reasonable to conclude that at least 500,000 gays died in the Holocaust because of anti-homosexual prejudice…” Actually 500,000 may be too conservative a figure.”
It is significant that Rector included homosexuals as official victims in that amorphous event known as the “Holocaust”. He even claimed that homosexuals were sent to the gas chambers. Among the illustrations in The Nazi Extermination of Homosexuals is a frequently reproduced photo of a US soldier in front of a ten cubic meter disinfestations chamber at Dachau (claimed to be a homicidal gas chamber). Rector’s caption reads:

“The final solution to the homosexual problem lay behind that door for homosexuals not exterminated in many other ways. This chamber at Dachau. The screaming, the weeping, the futile gasping for breath, the agony that room held in a air-tight horror, was, in its hideous way, a blessing for many gays. It reduced their suffering to about fifteen minutes.”

Also in 1981, an article entitled “Some Jews and the Gays” by the homosexual novelist Gore Vidal appeared in The Nation (4). Vidal was responding to an essay in Commentary by the “neo-conservative “ Jewish author Midge Decter (5). Decter had been ruthlessly critical of the homosexual lifestyle, so Vidal told her that “like it or not, Jews and homosexuals are in the same fragile boat”. He then proceeded to lecture her that in some future “holocaust”, neo-conservative Jews were “going to be in the same gas chambers as the blacks and the faggots”.

Vidal backed up his account of homosexual victimization with a claim that fellow homosexual writer Christopher Isherwood once told him “Hitler killed 600,000 homosexuals”.

Disinfection chamber at Dachau which was believed to be a homicidal gas chamber

Disinfection chamber at Dachau which was believed to be a homicidal gas chamber

The photo above shows the famous “gas chamber” at Dachau, which was believed, as late as 1981, to have been the gas chamber where homosexual men were murdered.

As the closest concentration camp to Berlin, the Sachsenhausen concentration camp had more homosexual prisoners than any of the other camps. According to a pamphlet, which I purchased at the Sachsenhausen Memorial Site in 2001, “a total of approximately 10,000 homosexuals were sent to all the Nazi concentration camps combined during the 12 years of the Third Reich.”

In an era when homosexuals were still in the closet in all the countries of the world, Berlin was a mecca for gays. The movie Cabaret depicts the gay scene in Berlin in 1931, just before the Nazis came to power. The movie was based on a book entitled Goodbye to Berlin by Christopher Isherwood, who lived an openly gay lifestyle in Berlin, the capital city of Germany.

Only male homosexuals who broke the German law (Paragraph 175) by flaunting their lifestyle in public were arrested. After their second arrest and prison term, these men were sent to one of the concentration camps in Germany. No lesbians were ever sent to a concentration camp, solely for being lesbians.

According to the pamphlet that I obtained at Sachsenhausen, some of the young men, who were sent to Sachsenhausen after they had been imprisoned twice for public homosexual activity, were actually Strichjunge, or male prostitutes, from Berlin.

According to the memoirs of Rudolf Höss:

The strict camp life and the hard work quickly reeducated this type. Most of them worked very hard and took great care not to get into trouble so that they could be released as soon as possible. They also avoided associating with those afflicted with this depravity and wanted to make it known that they had nothing to do with homosexuals. In this way countless rehabilitated young men could be released without having a relapse.

I saw the movie entitled Bent, soon after I started studying the Holocaust, and specifically the Dachau concentration camp.  I had a hard time understanding the movie.  It was Greek to me.

Here is the plot of Bent, from an entry in Wikipedia:

Max (Clive Owen) is a promiscuous gay man living in 1930s Berlin. He is at odds with his wealthy family because of his homosexuality. One evening, much to the resentment of his boyfriend, Rudy (Brian Webber II), Max brings home a handsome SA man (Nikolaj Coster-Waldau). Unfortunately, he does so on the Night of the Long Knives, when Hitler ordered the assassination of upper echelon SA corps. The Sturmabteilung man is discovered and killed by SS men in Max and Rudy’s apartment, and the two have to flee Berlin.

Max’s Uncle Freddie (Ian McKellen) has organised new papers for Max, but Max refuses to leave his boyfriend behind. As a result, Max and Rudy are found and arrested by the Gestapo and put on a train headed for Dachau. On the train, Rudy is brutally beaten to death by the guards. As Rudy calls out to Max when he is taken away, Max lies to the guards, denying he is gay. In the camp, Max falls in love with Horst (Lothaire Bluteau), who shows him the dignity that lies in acknowledging one’s beliefs.

This movie is pure fiction, but it has influenced many people to have unreasonable beliefs about the treatment of Homosexuals in Nazi Germany.

Hitler was planning a world exhibition in 1950, at which time the city of Berlin would be renamed Germania. By that time, Hitler had envisioned that all the Volkdeutsch (ethnic Germans) would be living together in one united country, which would dominate the world as the only super power. Authority for this building project came from the “Legislation for the reconstruction of German cities,” which dated from October 4, 1937. Albert Speer, Hitler’s official architect since 1933, was given the job of planning the construction project for Berlin.

To provide building materials for this project, beginning in the summer of 1938, the prisoners at the Sachsenhausen concentration camp were used as forced labor in the construction of the world’s largest brickworks just outside the camp, near the Lehnitz lock on the Hohenzollern canal.

The proposed design for Berlin included the building of a magnificent avenue, 7 kilometers long, which would run north and south, and would intersect with the broad Unter den Linden street at the famous Brandenburg gate. The street was to end at the Grand Hall, planned to be the largest building in the world. It was to be 290 meters high and 315 meters long with a seating capacity of 150,000 to 180,000 people. Hitler designed this building himself with a little help from Albert Speer. All the buildings in this project were planned to be classic buildings along the lines of those in ancient Greece and Rome.

Prisoners working at Sachsenhausen sub-camp

Prisoners working at Sachsenhausen brick works

To provide building materials for this project, beginning in the summer of 1938, the prisoners at the Sachsenhausen concentration camp were used as forced labor in the construction of the world’s largest brickworks just outside the camp, near the Lehnitz lock on the Hohenzollern canal. When World War II started in 1939, Hitler’s building plans had to be put on hold, but after the victory over France in 1940, the plans resumed.

The group of Sachsenhausen prisoners, who were assigned to the brickworks (Klinkerwerk), was called the “punishment commando.” The workers had to march to and from the camp to the brickworks each day.

In 1941 the Klinker punishment commando was given the status of a satellite camp or sub-camp of the Sachsenhausen concentration camp. Barracks were built on the southeast side of the plant to house the workers.

According to an Information Leaflet about the Klinkerwerk, which I purchased at the Sachsenhausen Memorial Site, the satellite camp was used for the deliberate annihilation of certain prisoners groups. From July to September 1942, the systematically planned murders of some 180 to 200 homosexual prisoners were carried out in the Klinker satellite camp, according to the Information Leaflet.

August 8, 2013

“Hitler started with the gays…” Say what?

On her news show “Outfront,” news commentator Erin Burnett talked about President Obama’s appearance on the Jay Leno show.  On the Leno show, the subject of Russia came up, since Obama is planning to go there soon. Segway into the subject of homosexuality, which is frowned upon in Russia.

Erin Burnett

Erin Burnett

You can see the video of the Jay Leno Show at http://outfront.blogs.cnn.com/2013/08/07/leno-is-russia-now-like-nazi-germany/  where you will read this quote:

More comparisons are being made about Russia’s new crackdown on gays and lesbians and the Nazi’s persecution of Jewish citizen, homosexuals and others Hitler wanted to eliminate.

It was mentioned on Burnett’s show that 84% of Russians are against gays, and that 76% of Russians agree with the laws against homosexuality in Russia.  You can see the video of Burnett’s segment about the Nazis and the gays here.

But prior to the discussion about Russians discriminating against gays, Erin Burnett dropped this bombshell:  “Hitler started with gays…and Gypsies.”

Ms. Burnett is correct, but she should have explained it for viewers who might have assumed that Hitler made a new law against homosexuals and Gypsies, under which he sent both groups to gas chambers to be killed.  That’s not what happened, and Ms. Burnett should have made that clear.

The law, which made homosexuality a crime, had been on the books in Germany since 1871 when the German states were united into a country by the King of Prussia, following the victory over France in the Franco-Prussian war.

After the Nazis came to power, a new law was made, which said that men who had been arrested twice, for any crime, would be sent to a concentration camp, after they had completed their second prison sentence. They would be held, in a concentration camp, for at least six months in order to be rehabilitated.  This was the law under which homosexuals and Gypsies would up at Dachau, and later, at other camps.  The law that was broken by the Gypsies was the new law which said that every man in Germany should have a permanent residence and a visible means of support.

This explanation would have taken up a lot of time on Erin Burnett’s news show, so I am not surprised that the subject was glossed over.  If my readers are not bored to death with this subject by now, you can read more about it in this quote from my own website:

Another category of prisoners in the Nazi concentration camps were the so-called “career criminals.” On June 17, 1936, Adolf Hitler had signed a decree which made Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler the new Chief of the German Police within the Reich Ministry of Interior. According to Peter Padfield, author of the book Himmler, the new Police Chief “saw his task as preventing crime before it happened by shutting away habitual criminals, preserving the Volk from contamination by shutting away subversives who might corrupt them, picking up vagrants, the ‘work shy’ and ‘anti-socials’ and putting them to work in his camps, and in addition supervising public morals.”

Padfield wrote that Himmler’s first large-scale action as Police Chief was the “nationwide round-up of professional criminals.” On March 9, 1937, Himmler gave the order to arrest around 2,000 “professional criminals” who had committed two or more crimes, but were now free after having served their sentences. They were arrested without charges and sent to a concentration camp for an indeterminate time.

In 1937, there were only 7,500 prisoners in the four main Nazi concentration camps: Dachau, Sachsenhausen, Buchenwald and Lichtenberg. By that time, Lichtenberg was being used exclusively for women prisoners. According to Padfield, Himmler’s biographer, the new Chief of Police wanted to increase the number of inmates in the concentration camps because he desired a large labor force for the factories owned by SS. For this reason, he broadened the category of asocials to include “tramps and vagabonds, beggars – even those with a fixed address – gypsies and people who traveled from place to place like gypsies if they showed no will to work regularly, pimps who had been involved in legal proceedings even if not convicted and who still associated with procurers and prostitutes, or people under strong suspicion of procuring and finally people who had demonstrated by numerous previous convictions for resistance, causing bodily injury, brawling, trespass and similar that they do not want to adapt themselves to the orderly Volk community.”

Another category of German citizens, who were persecuted by Himmler, in his capacity as Chief of the German Police, was homosexuals. Paragraph 175 of the German criminal code, which had been in effect since 1871, made it a crime for men to publicly engage in gay sex or for male prostitutes to solicit men for sex. Himmler began enforcing this law and a total of about 10,000 homosexuals were eventually sent to concentration camps such as Dachau, Sachsenhausen and Mauthausen for at least 6 months of “rehabilitation.” According to Christian Bernadac, who wrote a book about Mauthausen, the homosexuals “received regular visits from the medical commissions” who attempted to change their sexual orientation because the Nazis believed that these prisoners were gay by choice.

Note that Padfield says that the number of homosexuals who were sent to concentration camps was 10,000.  Current stories about gays in Germany are giving the number of homosexuals, who were persecuted, as 100,000.

Note also that the law, under Paragraph 175, made it a crime to PUBLICLY engage in homosexual acts.  It was also a crime for male prostitutes to solicit men for sex.  Some of the men, who were sent to a concentration camp for soliciting men for sex, were later released after it was determined that they were not homosexual themselves.

May 25, 2013

Dachau tour guides must be certified, in order to keep Neo-Nazis from conducting tours

I have been to the Dachau Memorial Site several times, beginning with my first visit in May 1997, but I have never taken a guided tour.  Now I am very glad that I never took a guided tour.  I might have burst out laughing, been arrested, and thrown into prison in Germany for 5 years.

I learned from this blogger that Dachau tour guides must be certified.  She visited the Dachau Memorial Site on March 5, 2013 and wrote this about her tour guide:

Our guide was not a typical tour guide – he was very much not a people-person, though perhaps that is the sobering nature of his work as a Dachau guide. He’d been giving Dachau tours for four years, and had a certification to do so. I’m always skeptical of certifications and what they actually do for you, but it ended up being very interesting. Apparently Neo-Nazis try to give tours of these camps with revisionist history, to make it sound like these atrocities never happened, showing alleged evidence during the tour that these places are all lies. On our tour there was a strict policy of not videotaping our guide, for fear that if these videos are on the internet then Neo Nazis will re-cut them to make it sound like even the legitimate tour guides believe the revisionist history. Even beyond this, though, the material covered in such a tour is sensitive and perhaps easy to treat or deliver an improper way. The [German] government is trying to get rid of all of these Neo-Nazi revisionists and anyone who doesn’t do a sufficiently sensitive job dealing with what happened at Dachau by requiring tour guide certification. The process takes about a year and a half – you have to know your stuff to be able to discuss this place. Suffice to say, it felt like we were in good hands.

Shouldn’t the policy be extended to forbid tourists from going through the camp on their own?  What is to keep tourists from noticing things that support the revisionist version of Dachau history?  I started down the road to revisionism the minute that I stepped inside the former camp.

According to the blogger who visited Dachau, this is the kind of information that a certified tour guide gives to visitors.  Everything in the following quote is WRONG, WRONG, WRONG:

Psychological torture was perhaps the focus of our tour. There are documents of methods they used just to get under the skin of their prisoners. Little things, like putting coat hooks and shelves in the barracks to emphasize that no one had a coat, or anything to put on the shelves. Signs that said “Rauchen Verboten” – smoking is forbidden – to remind them that they had no cigarettes. Words on the door to the camp – “work will set you free.” Then other things – they would torture people in the dead of the night, between midnight and three in the morning, to keep people in the barracks awake with the screams. They’d keep the windows open just to make it all the louder. Systems were in place to ensure that the guards could not take sympathy on the prisoners without direct harm to themselves – sympathy could result in their own imprisonment in the camp. Former guards were the ones was in charge of keeping the prisoners in that barracks in line, making sure everyone did his job. The capos were usually taken from the group of criminally insane, the psychopaths, the rapists, the murderers. If they didn’t do well enough, they too were turned over to the mob. These camps were designed to almost run themselves.

There was also the interesting issue of paperwork, and registered versus unregistered prisoners. Over the course of the war, only the tiniest fraction of the prisoners were ever registered officially. We know that far more people than were registered went through these camps and died in them, but we have no idea how many simply because the Germans wouldn’t register a lot of people in order to keep the death rates in these camps artificially low. When you look at the map that shows the number of people officially registered in these camps, the numbers are low compared to what you hear in history books.

It would take hours for me to tell you why every word of this is WRONG.  Read a revisionist website to learn the truth.  No wonder the Dachau tour guides have to be certified.  (Certified insane, so they can tell these lies.)

This quote is also from the blogger who took a tour of the Dachau Memorial Site:

Dachau is one of the best preserved concentration camps in the world, and one of only three that still has one of the old gas chambers. When the Nazis realized that they were losing, they destroyed the gas chambers usually, but for some reason not the one at Dachau – there is still speculation about why this is. The man hired to run Dachau, Theodor Eicke, was a medically diagnosed psychopath.

Did the certified tour guide really say that there is “speculation” about Theodor Eicke not blowing up the gas chamber because he was a “medically diagnosed psychopath”?

Eicke was not the Commandant of Dachau at the time that the gas chamber should have been blown up to prevent the Allies from finding it.  Eicke was the second commandant at Dachau and he held this position for only one year.  In June 1934, Eicke was given the title of Inspector General and the authority to approve all punishments in all the camps.  In fact, Eicke was dead by the time that the Dachau gas chamber should have been blown up.  According to Wikipedia, “Eicke was killed on 26 February 1943, several months after being promoted to SS-Obergruppenführer (equivalent to general in the Waffen-SS).”

Isn’t that just like the Nazis?  Promoting a “medically diagnosed psychopath” to the rank of general in the Waffen-SS.  But I digress.

I previously blogged about why the Dachau gas chamber was not blown up.

This quote from my fellow blogger concerns the gas chamber at Dachau:

At the very end of the tour, Marcin our tour guide took us to the building where the gas chamber was held. He gave us the history, told us how it was used. While the Dachau gas chamber was not an instrument of death quite the same way that the gas chambers at Auschwitz were, they were used for experimenting with different kinds of poison gas, to determine what gases and what methods were most effective.

“I went into the gas chamber the first time I was here, and I have never gone back through it. I will not be going through it today. Once was enough. Meet me at the exit.”

First, through the rooms where the men were told to remove all their clothes; they were going to have a shower. Then they would be handed soap and towels.  […]

I was the first to walk in. I can’t really describe how or why it was overwhelming, but it was. Most people were in and out as quickly as they could go – just a walk through, stepping on as little of the floor as possible. I stepped to the side, just stood, crying, while everyone else walked through as if there were some invisible barrier keeping them from stepping into any space that wasn’t directly between the two doors. A large group came shuffling through, laughing and making ghost-sounds to cover up their fear, the uncomfortable way that their skin crawled – but they spoke in whispers and didn’t look up from the ground, so I couldn’t be angry.

I have spent a lot of time in the Dachau gas chamber, on several occasions, so I know that most people just walk through as fast as they can.  You can read all about the Dachau gas chamber on my website here.

The outside wall of the Dachau gas chamber

The outside wall of the Dachau gas chamber

In my opinion, the tour guides should begin their spiel about the gas chamber while standing beside the outside wall of the gas chamber.  Explain to the tourists what these holes in the wall of the gas chamber were for.

But wait, there’s more.  This quote is from the blogger who took a tour of Dachau:

On the way back while we were waiting for our train, Marcin gave us a sort of conclusion. There were a couple of interesting takeaways. Memorials at Dachau are very controversial. Jews were not the only ones persecuted there – over the 12 years that Dachau was running, it was home to political prisoners, homosexuals, Jehovas Witnesses, Gypsies, criminals, the disabled, Jews, and anyone else that the state wanted to imprison. The categories of people and the reasons for imprisonment were intentionally broad so that there didn’t have to be much, if any, justification for incarceration. There are memorials for specific groups of prisoners, but others are not memorialized – for example, the memorials for the gypsies and the homosexuals held at Dachau are not public, but rather held elsewhere and difficult to see (they may not even be available for public viewing – it was unclear). There are yet other Dachau survivors who maintain that while their category of people was wrongfully incarcerated, other groups belonged there.

There is no memorial to the Gypsies at Dachau because Gypsies were not sent to Dachau for being Gypsies.  They were sent to Dachau for breaking the law that said that everyone in Germany should have a job and a permanent address.  This law was directed at the Gypsies, but there were non-Gypsies who were “Luftmenschen” or people living on air with no visible means of support, who were also sent to Dachau.

There is no memorial to the homosexuals at Dachau because homosexuals were sent to Dachau for breaking the law against having homosexual sex in public, or for being male prostitutes, not for their sexual orientation.  They were imprisoned for breaking Paragraph 175, the law against homosexuality which had been on the books in Germany since 1871.

As far as I know, disabled people were not sent to Dachau for being disabled.  Criminals were, in fact, sent to Dachau and other camps, so that they could be put to work instead of lolling around in a prison cell. Jehovah’s Witnesses were sent to Dachau and other camps because they refused to serve in the military.  Men who refused to serve in the military in America were also sent to prison.

Most of the prisoners at Dachau were political prisoners, who were arrested for fighting as illegal combatants, or for being enemies of the German government.  There is no memorial to them at Dachau.

To further understand the gas chamber story, told at Dachau, read this blog post, written by a man who calls himself a “twice a year Jew.”

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