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December 25, 2013

Is the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising a “myth”? Say it isn’t so!

In a recent article, headlined “Haaretz’s Holocaust Revisionism,” Eugene Kontorovitch wrote that “A new level of vileness has been reached in the pages of Haaretz.”

Haaretz is Israel’s leading newspaper.  It is the equivalent of the New York Times in America.

This quote is from the article written by Kontorovitch on December 23, 2013:

[Haaretz] has crossed all prior bounds of decency and published a criticism of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, calling it a “myth,” and accusing its heroes of being responsible for the ultimate liquidation of the Ghetto. Despite disagreements on diplomatic, territorial, and religious issues, the memory of the Holocaust–its heroes and victims–had been the great unifying porch in post-War Jewish consciousness. Now the Holocaust is fair game too.

The [Haaretz] article’s argument is that maybe if the fighters had not been so uppity, if they had not made a fuss–then the Nazis, who had already murdered 500,000 Jews of Warsaw, might have let the remaining 50,000 live. Maybe! It is not a new argument. Rather, the author amazingly resurrects and endorses the arguments of the Judernat, the Jewish collaboration government of the Ghetto. With every new deportation, they urged restrain with increasing urgency–maybe they will let the rest of us live, and if you fight, all the past deportations would be a sacrifice in vain.

There can be no more terrible case of “blaming the victim” than laying any responsibility for the liquidation of the Ghetto at the feet of the fighters.

It is true, the Jewish “communal leadership”–and the rabbis–opposed the uprising. That is what made it brave. The Judenrat had no right to decide if residents of the Ghetto died in gas chambers or fighting for their freedom.

Starving children in the Warsaw Ghetto

Starving children in the Warsaw Ghetto

Was it wrong for the Judenrat to cooperate with the Nazis, in an attempt to save as many Jews as possible?  I blogged about this question at https://furtherglory.wordpress.com/2012/05/20/the-son-of-dr-benjamin-murmelstein-defends-his-fathers-reputation-in-a-new-essay/

Were there ever as many as 500,000 Jews living in Warsaw?  The 500,000 figure might be a bit of an exaggeration.  The way I heard it, when I visited Warsaw in 1998, was that there were 450,000 Jews in the Warsaw ghetto, before deportations to the Treblinka death camp began in 1942.  I blogged about the Treblinka death camp at https://furtherglory.wordpress.com/2012/01/13/the-murder-weapon-used-at-treblinka-carbon-monoxide-or-zyklon-b-gas/

Before World War II started on September 1, 1939, there were 375,000 Jews living in Warsaw, as many as in all of France, and more than in the whole country of Czechoslovakia. Only the city of New York had a larger Jewish population than Warsaw.

The first Jews had settled in Warsaw after King Kasimierz the Great welcomed Jewish refugees from Western Europe to Poland in the 14th century, but during the 15th century they were expelled from the city of Warsaw, just as they were in Krakow. Between 1527 and 1768, Jews were banned from living in Warsaw.

After Poland was partitioned for the third time in 1795, between Russia, Prussia and Austria, the Jews began coming back to Warsaw, which was in the Russian section. By the start of World War I, Jews made up forty percent of the population of the city of Warsaw. During the 19th century, and up until the end of World War I, Warsaw was in the Pale of Settlement where all Russian Jews were forced to live. When Poland regained its independence after World War I, Warsaw was once again a Polish city. From the beginning, the Jewish district was located southeast of Old Town Warsaw.

The Nazis liked to take action against the Jews on Jewish holidays, so it was on Yom Kippur, the Jewish Day of Atonement, that the announcement was made on October 12, 1940 that “Jewish residential quarters” were to be set up in Warsaw. The Ghetto would comprise 2.4 percent of the city’s land, but would contain 30% of the city’s population, according to the U.S. Holocaust Museum. To create the Ghetto, the Nazis moved 113,000 Christian residents out and moved 138,000 Jewish residents in. The rest of the Warsaw Jews were already living in the area of the city, which became the Ghetto.

It was on April 19, 1943 (Passover, a Jewish holiday) that Ukrainian and Latvian soldiers, in the German SS, marched into the Warsaw ghetto, entering at the northern border of the Ghetto on Zamenhofa street. It was not until May 16 that the SS was able to defeat the handful of resistors, who lasted longer than the whole Polish army when the Germans and the Russians jointly invaded Poland in September 1939.

The greatest hero of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising was Mordechai Anielewicz, the leader of the Z.O.B., a Jewish Resistance Organization, which fought against the Germans as illegal combatants during World War II.

Memorial to the ghetto fighters in Warsaw

Memorial to the ghetto fighters in Warsaw

One of the stops on the Memory Lane tour of Warsaw, which I took in 1998, was the monument pictured above, which honors the Jewish Z.O.B. resistance fighters; it is the work of sculptor Nathan Rappaport and is sometimes referred to as the Nathan Rappaport Memorial. It is located on ul. Zamenhofa, the street where the fighting began in the Warsaw uprising.

In the photo above, the front of the monument is shown. It depicts several of the resistance fighters with Anielewicz in the front, holding a hand grenade in his hand.

At the start of the fight, a few hand grenades were virtually the only weapons that the Jews had. After they killed a few SS soldiers and the others retreated, the resistance fighters took the weapons from the hands of the dead SS men, and continued the fight the next day when the soldiers returned.  There were 16 SS soldiers killed in the uprising.

The other side of the Warsaw memorial to the ghetto fighters

The other side of the Warsaw memorial to the ghetto fighters

The back side of the Warsaw Memorial, shown in the photo above, depicts the Jews marching to a gas chamber.

Famous photo of Jews marching to the gas chamber at Auschwitz

Famous photo of Jews marching to the gas chamber at Auschwitz

The photos below are included in the Stroop Report.

An underground room where the ghetto fighters his from the SS soldiers

An underground room where the ghetto fighters hid from the SS soldiers during the Warsaw uprising

Destruction in the Warsaw Ghetto during the uprising

Destruction in the Warsaw Ghetto during the uprising

The two black and white photos above are from The Stroop Report, a 75-page book, which consists mostly of telegrams, sent during the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising.

Four of these telegrams from the Stroop Report are quoted below:

April 25, 1943:

In total, 1690 Jews were captured alive. According to stories from the Jews, there have definitely also been parachutists dropped here and bandits who have been supplied weapons from an unknown location. 274 Jews were shot, and as on other days, uncounted Jews were buried alive in the blown-up bunkers and, as near as can be determined, burned. With today’s bounty of Jews, a very large portion of the bandits and lowest elements of the Ghetto has, in my opinion, been captured. Immediate liquidation was not carried out due to the onset of darkness. I will attempt to obtain a train for T II (the Treblinka death camp) for tomorrow, otherwise the liquidations will be carried out tomorrow.

April 26, 1943:

At this time there are no more captured Jews in Warsaw. The previously mentioned transport to T.II (Treblinka death camp) was successful.

May 13, 1943:

The few Jews and criminals still remaining in the ghetto have for 2 days used the refuges available in the ruins in order to go back to their well-known bunkers at night, and there to eat and supply themselves for the next day. No evidence on further bunkers known to them can be obtained from the captured Jews. The rest of the inhabitants, where the fire fight took place, were destroyed by the strongest explosive charges. From a Wehrmacht operation 327 Jews were captured today. These captured Jews will only be sent to T.II.

May 24, 1943:

Of the overall total of 56,065 captured Jews, about 7,000 have been destroyed in the course of the large-scale action in the former Jewish living quarter. 6,929 Jews were destroyed (vernichtet) by transport to T. II, so that overall, 13,929 Jews were destroyed. It is estimated that, in addition to the number of 56,065, 5 – 6,000 Jews were destroyed (vernichtet) by explosions and fire.

Famous photo included in the Stroop report on the Warsaw Ghetto uprising

Famous photo included in the Stroop report on the Warsaw Ghetto uprising

I previously blogged here about the famous photo, shown above, which was included in the Stroop Report.  The Stroop report was introduced into the Nuremberg International Military Tribunal, including this photo.

March 10, 2010

Controversial photo from the Warsaw ghetto

Filed under: Holocaust, World War II — Tags: , , , , — furtherglory @ 10:57 am

Photo Credit: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum

Here is the USHMM caption of the photo above:

“Jews captured by German troops during the Warsaw Ghetto uprising in April-May 1943. This photograph appeared in the Stroop Report, an album compiled by SS Major General Juergen Stroop, commander of German forces that suppressed the Warsaw ghetto uprising. The album was introduced as evidence at the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg. In the decades since the trial this photo has become one of the iconographic images of the Holocaust.”

The following quote, from the USHMM, explains the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising:

In the summer of 1942, about 300,000 Jews were deported from Warsaw to Treblinka. When reports of mass murder in the killing center leaked back to the Warsaw ghetto, a surviving group of mostly young people formed an organization called the Z.O.B. (for the Polish name, Zydowska Organizacja Bojowa, which means Jewish Fighting Organization). The Z.O.B., led by 23-year-old Mordecai Anielewicz, issued a proclamation calling for the Jewish people to resist going to the railroad cars. In January 1943, Warsaw ghetto fighters fired upon German troops as they tried to round up another group of ghetto inhabitants for deportation. Fighters used a small supply of weapons that had been smuggled into the ghetto. After a few days, the troops retreated. This small victory inspired the ghetto fighters to prepare for future resistance.

On April 19, 1943, the Warsaw ghetto uprising began after German troops and police entered the ghetto to deport its surviving inhabitants. Seven hundred and fifty fighters fought the heavily armed and well-trained Germans. The ghetto fighters were able to hold out for nearly a month, but on May 16, 1943, the revolt ended. The Germans had slowly crushed the resistance. Of the more than 56,000 Jews captured, about 7,000 were shot, and the remainder were deported to camps.

The Stroop Report is very important because it was mentioned in the opening statement by Robert Jackson, the chief prosecutor at the Nuremberg International Military Tribunal:

I shall not dwell on this subject longer than to quote one more sickening document which evidences the planned and systematic character of the Jewish persecutions. I hold a report written with Teutonic devotion to detail, illustrated with photographs to authenticate its almost incredible text, and beautifully bound in leather with the loving care bestowed on a proud work. It is the original report of the SS Brigadier General Stroop in charge of the destruction of the Warsaw Ghetto, and its title page carries the inscription, “The Jewish ghetto in Warsaw no longer exists.” It is characteristic that one of the captions explains that the photograph concerned shows the driving out of Jewish “bandits”; those whom the photograph shows being driven out are almost entirely women and little children. It contains a day-by-day account of the killings mainly carried out by the SS organization, too long to relate, but let me quote General Stroop’s summary:

“The resistance put up by the Jews and bandits could only be suppressed by energetic actions of our troops day and night. The Reichsführer SS ordered, therefore, on 23 April 1948, the clearing out of the ghetto with utter ruthlessness and merciless tenacity. I, therefore, decided to destroy and burn down the entire ghetto without regard to the armament factories. These factories were systematically dismantled and then burned. Jews usually left their hideouts, but frequently remained in the burning buildings and jumped out of the windows only when the heat became unbearable. They then tried to crawl with broken bones across the street into buildings which were not afire. Sometimes they changed their hideouts during the night into the ruins of burned buildings. Life in the sewers was not pleasant after the first week. Many times we could hear loud voices in the sewers. SS men or policemen climbed bravely through the manholes to capture these Jews. Sometimes they stumbled over Jewish corpses; sometimes they were shot at. Tear gas bombs were thrown into the manholes and the Jews driven out of the sewers and captured. Countless numbers of Jews were liquidated in sewers and bunkers through blasting. The longer the resistance continued the tougher became the members of the Waffen SS, Police and Wehrmacht who always discharged their duties in an exemplary manner. Frequently Jews who tried to replenish their food supplies during the night or to communicate with neighboring groups were exterminated.

“This action eliminated,” says the SS commander, “a proved total of 56,065. To that, we haste to add the number killed through blasting, fire, etc., which cannot be counted.” (1061-PS)

We charge that all atrocities against Jews were the manifestation and culmination of the Nazi plan to which every defendant here was a party.

The defendants at the Nuremberg IMT were charged with participating in a “common plan” to commit war crimes, and Jackson is saying that the “Stroop Report” is evidence of that plan, which means that the photo of the little boy with his hands in the air, which is in the “Stroop Report,” is included in the evidence of a “common plan” to exterminate the Jews.

So far, so good.  So why is this photo controversial?  Well, some people think that this photo was not taken in the Warsaw Ghetto, so what is it doing in the “Stroop Report”?  Good question.

Long after the war, Tsvi Nussbaum claimed to be the 7-year-old boy in the photo above.  According to the “Stroop Report,” the photo was taken during the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising which took place between April 19, 1943 and May 16, 1943 before Tsvi was arrested. However, Nussbaum claims that the photo was taken when he was arrested on July 13, 1943 in front of the Hotel Polski on the Aryan side of the Warsaw Ghetto.

Tsvi C. Nussbaum claims that he and his aunt had been living as Gentiles in the Hotel Polski.  Since they had foreign passports, they were sent, after they were arrested, to the Bergen-Belsen detention camp as “exchange Jews.”

Tsvi was one of the survivors of Bergen-Belsen. In 1945, he went to Palestine, but in 1953 he moved to America. He became a doctor, specializing in ear, nose and throat, in Rockland County in upstate New York.

Coincidentially, another person arrested at the Hotel Polski was the  beautiful Franceska Mann, who allegedly shot  SS man Josef Schillinger in the undressing room of the gas chamber in Krema II at the Auschwitz II death camp, also known as Birkenau.  Franceska Mann was one of the Jews who had a foreign passport and was initially sent to Bergen-Belsen.  I blogged about Schillinger on February 5, 2010.

So who is right, Nussbaum or the “Stroop Report”? And why would Jürgen Stroop put a fake photo into his report?  Was he trying to impress his superior officers with the brutality of the soldiers who put down the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising?  I don’t know the answer to these questions.  You tell me.

The reason why these questions are important is this:  If the photo was taken in the Warsaw Ghetto and if Nussbaum is the boy in the photo and he wasn’t killed, then this means that the Nazis  had no “common plan” to commit the war crime of genocide of the Jews.  If Nussbaum is the boy in the photo, regardless of where it was taken, and he survived, then there was no “common plan” to kill all the Jews.  That is why so many researchers have concentrated on this photo, trying to prove something, one way or another.