Scrapbookpages Blog

October 1, 2016

The little boy with his hands up is back in the news

Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: , , , , — furtherglory @ 11:06 am
Famous photo of little boy with his hands up

Famous photo of little boy with his hands up

The famous photo above is from the Stroop Report; the photo was taken in the Warsaw Ghetto in April or May, 1943.

You can the read the recent news article, which includes the photo of “the little boy with his hands up” at http://www.rappler.com/newsbreak/iq/147906-adolf-hitler-holocaust-duterte

This headline is from the news story, cited above:

LOOK BACK: Hitler and the Holocaust

Begin quote from news article:

President Rodrigo Duterte sparks outrage after he drew parallels between the Holocaust and his own bloody war on drugs …

End of quote from the news article.

Here is the full story about the controversial “little boy with his hands up” photo:

Seven-year-old Tsvi C. Nussbaum, who claims to be the boy shown in the photo above, was one of the Polish Jews who had been arrested, along with his aunt, on July 13, 1943, in front of the Hotel Polski on the Aryan side of the Warsaw ghetto, where they had been living as Gentiles.

Since they had foreign passports, they were sent to the Bergen-Belsen detention camp as “exchange Jews.”

Little Tsvi’s parents had emigrated to Palestine in 1935, but had returned to Sandomierz, Poland in 1939 just before World War II started. Tsvi was one of the survivors of Bergen-Belsen.

In 1945, Tsvi went to Palestine, but in 1953, he returned and moved to America. He became a doctor, specializing in ear, nose and throat, in Rockland County in upstate New York.

Tsvi Nussbaum claimed to be the little boy in the famous photo.

However, this photo was allegedly taken during the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising which took place between April 19, 1943 and May 16, 1943 before Tsvi was arrested; it is one of the photos included in the Stroop Report about the liquidation of the Warsaw Ghetto.

The soldier, who is holding a gun on the little boy in the photo, was Josef Blösche; he was put on trial in East Germany after the war and was executed after being convicted of being a war criminal.

End of story

 

September 25, 2016

Treblinka memorial site is in today’s news

Filed under: Germany, Holocaust — Tags: , , , , — furtherglory @ 11:24 am

The first place that I visited, when I started traveling to Holocaust sites in 1998, was Treblinka, a camp in Poland where it is claimed, by Holocaust True Believers, that millions of Jews were killed. Holocaust deniers claim that Treblinka was a transit camp. I believe that it was a transit camp, but what do I know?

My 1998 photo of the huge monument at Treblinka

My 1998 photo of a huge monument at Treblinka

The huge monument at Treblinka, shown in the photo above, is located on the spot where the Jews were allegedly killed. No one is allowed to dig anywhere near this monument to prove, or disprove, that bodies were buried there.

You can read a news story about a trip to Holocaust sites in Poland, taken recently by Pam Kancher, on this website: http://www.heritagefl.com/story/2016/09/23/features/there-but-for-the-grace-of-god-go-i/6856.html

Begin quote

This past July, the Holocaust Center sponsored its first Jewish Heritage Tour to Poland and Prague. Thirty people joined me [Pam Karcher] on an emotional 10-day journey of reflection and remembrance. At our recent reunion we each shared a memory that stood out from all the rest. By far the most meaningful experience I had was visiting the Treblinka memorial.

Treblinka was the site of the Nazis’ second-largest extermination camp after Auschwitz-Birkenau. It is estimated that from July 1942 through November 1943 between 870,000 and 925,000 Jews were killed there-on average 2,000 men, women and children were gassed each day and their bodies burnt on huge, open-air cremation pyres.

Treblinka was not a work camp. It was built as a death camp. Jews were deported there from the Warsaw Ghetto as well as from other areas of Central Poland, primarily Warsaw, Radom and Krakow. Following an uprising by the prisoners in August 1943, the extermination camp was demolished and abandoned.

[The most important part of the news article is this quote:]

The Treblinka Museum of Struggle and Martyrdom, dedicated in 1964, was built in the shadow of the gas chambers, the original buildings having long ago been plowed and planted over. The only thing left were the ashes and memories. The outdoor museum is a symbolic Jewish cemetery made of 17,000 boulders of varying shapes and sizes-some say they represent the lost Jewish communities of the Holocaust. One hundred-forty of the boulders were engraved with the name of a town or village from which the Jews were deported.

End quote

My 1998 photo of the symbolic cemetery

My 1998 photo of the symbolic cemetery at Treblinka

There are no bodies that were buried in the location of the symbolic cemetery, shown in my photo above. That is why it is called a SYMBOLIC cemetery, not an actual cemetery where bodies are buried.  The purpose of this symbolic cemetery is to prevent anyone from digging up the ground to see if any bodies are  actually buried there.

In my humble opinion, there are no bodies buried in this area because Treblinka was a TRANSIT  camp, where no Jews were deliberately killed.

Symbolic cemetery behind Treblionka Monument

My 1998 photo of Symbolic cemetery behind Treblinka Monument

 

 

May 14, 2016

How Stalin inadverently saved Jews from the Nazi gas chambers

Filed under: Germany, Holocaust — Tags: , , , , — furtherglory @ 7:56 am

You can read about how Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin saved Polish Jews from the Nazi gas chambers in this recent news article: http://www.ibtimes.com/how-joseph-stalin-inadvertently-saved-some-polands-jews-1099571

The following quote is from the news article:

Begin quote

Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin, perhaps the worst mass killer in human history with the blood of tens of millions of people on his hands, once inadvertently saved Polish Jews from the Nazi death camps and gas chambers by deporting them to Siberia and other parts of the USSR.

In 1940, one year before the Nazis commenced their program of extermination, Stalin ordered the deportation of some 200,000 – perhaps as many as 300,000 — Polish Jews from Russian-occupied Eastern Poland to Gulag labor camps deep in the Soviet Union.

Notwithstanding his virulent anti-Semitism (and his own sanctioning of the killing of Jews within Russia itself), Stalin’s order ironically saved these Jewish lives – indeed, these deportees represented the bulk of Polish Jewry who survived the Nazi Holocaust.

In 1939, just before the outbreak of World War II, Poland boasted a Jewish population of some 3.3-million, or about 8.5 percent of the total (and almost one-third of Warsaw’s population).

End quote

How many of those Jews, who had been deported to Siberia, came back and settled in Poland where they told their stories of how they had been saved from the Nazi gas chambers?

You can see photos of all the Nazi gas chambers on this previous blog post: https://furtherglory.wordpress.com/2010/08/30/how-many-of-the-nazi-gas-chambers-are-still-in-existence/

 

October 11, 2015

Famous photo of the little boy with his hands up, in the Warsaw ghetto

Filed under: Germany, Holocaust — Tags: , — furtherglory @ 2:10 pm

Today, I was doing some research about gun control in Nazi Germany when I read Wikipedia’s page about the Warsaw Ghetto uprising. On this page, Wikipedia uses the famous photo of the “little boy with his hands up.”

Famous photo that was allegedly taken in the Warsaw ghetto uprising

Famous photo that was allegedly taken in the Warsaw ghetto uprising (Click to enlarge)

The photo, shown above, is very controversial; I blogged about it at

https://furtherglory.wordpress.com/2010/03/10/controversial-photo-from-warsaw-ghetto/

and again at

https://furtherglory.wordpress.com/2015/06/05/photo-of-the-little-boy-with-his-hands-up-the-rest-of-the-story/

Some of the new people who have joined the discussions on my blog might want to weigh in on this controversy.

Here is my last word on the subject:  Wikipedia should not put controversial photos on its pages.  This irritates people, especially me.

The photo below would be much better.  The caption on the photo is “German soldiers lead Jews captured during the Warsaw ghetto uprising to the assembly point for deportation. Poland, May 1943”

Photo taken in Warsaw ghetto

Photo taken in Warsaw ghetto shows Jews being led out of the ghetto

 

May 27, 2012

Bob Dylan and Jan Karski to receive the Presidential Medal of Freedom

Filed under: Holocaust, World War II — Tags: , , , — furtherglory @ 11:38 am

On Tuesday, May 29, 2012, President Barack Obama will give the Presidential Medal of Freedom to Bob Dylan and posthumously to Jan Karski. What do these two men have in common?  Nothing — I just wanted to get your attention.

Most Americans know who Bob Dylan is, but who was Jan Karski?

Jan Karski was a Polish resistance fighter who was among the first to tell the world, in the Summer of 1942, that the Nazis were NOT “transporting the Jews to the East,” as they claimed, but were committing mass murder in occupied Poland.  At that time, Karski was a 33-year-old diplomat in the Polish government-in-exile in London; he was preparing for a secret mission to carry information about the massacre of the Jews in occupied Poland to America. Before leaving for Washington, DC, he met with two Jewish leaders from the Warsaw Ghetto. They briefed him on “Hitler’s war against the Polish Jews.”

During a ceremony at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum on April 23rd this year, President Obama spoke about Jan Karski as “a young Polish Catholic who witnessed Jews being put on cattle cars, who saw the killings, and who told the truth, all the way to President Roosevelt himself.”  Jan Karski had tried to tell the world the truth, while “so many others stood silent,” in the words of President Obama.

After coming to America in July 1943, Jan Karski got his PhD and then taught history at Georgetown University for many years.  He became an American citizen in 1954.  In the year 2000, Dr. Karski died at the age of 86.

Here is the back story on Jan Karski:

On September 1, 1939, when Germany invaded Poland, Jan Karski (not his real name) was a young soldier in a horse-drawn artillery unit, which was hopelessly outdated compared to the well-equipped German army.  Karski deserted, running toward the East, but on September 17, 1939, the Soviet Union attacked Poland from the other side. Karski was captured by the Soviets; he barely escaped the Katyn Forest massacre which the Soviets blamed on the Germans at the Nuremberg IMT.

Karski fled into one of the many huge forests in Poland and joined the Polish Underground which continued to fight throughout World War II, although not on the battlefield.  Karski worked as a courier, carrying messages from Warsaw to the Polish government which was in exile in France at that time.  On one of his missions, he was captured by the German Gestapo and tortured.  To escape the torture, he pulled a razor blade out of the sole of his shoe and slashed his wrists.  The Germans took him to a hospital and he survived.

Karski escaped from the Germans and, posing as a Jew, wearing a yellow Star of David, he sneaked into the Warsaw Ghetto so that he could observe the horrible conditions there. He learned that the Jews were being sent from the Warsaw Ghetto to Treblinka, a death camp that was 60 miles to the East.

Next, Karski went to the Izbica Ghetto, which served as a transit camp for Jews who were being sent to the Belzec and Sobibor extermination camps.

After witnessing what was happening to the Jews in Poland, Karski went to England where he spoke to members of the British War Cabinet, but Winston Churchill refused to see him.  Then it was on to America, where Karski spoke with Secretary of State Cordell Hull, Supreme Court Justice Felix Frankfurter, and finally with President Franklin Delano Roosevelt.  All of these men found his story difficult to believe.

In a secret meeting with President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Karski told Roosevelt about the Auschwitz death camp and that 1.8. million Jews had already been killed in Poland. He said that commanders of the Polish Home Army (a resistance group) had estimated that, without Allied intervention, the Jews of Poland would “cease to exist” in 18 months.  Still, Roosevelt refused to bomb the Auschwitz death camp.

After failing to impress any of the Allied leaders, Jan Karski went public with his story.  He delivered around 200 lectures and wrote a best-selling book entitled The Story of a Secret State.  Still, it was several years after the war until it became universally known that Treblinka, Belzec and Sobibor were death camps where the Jews were gassed.

So what did Jan Karski do to get the Presidential Medal of Freedom, if no one listened to him?  Although America did nothing to save the Jews from the gas chambers in what is now Poland, President Roosevelt did establish the War Refugee Board, a Federal agency that helped the Holocaust survivors to come to America. John Pehle, who became the head of the War Refugee Board, said that President Roosevelt decided to establish the board after his talks with Jan Karski.

April 30, 2011

Holocaust Remembrance Day marks the anniversary of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising

Filed under: Holocaust — Tags: , , — furtherglory @ 3:31 pm

According to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Yom Hashoah which falls on May 2nd this year, is observed in honor of the anniversary of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising which began on April 19, 1943.  According to the Museum, the United States has an official eight-day period, known as Days of Remembrance of the Victims of the Holocaust, that begins the Sunday before Yom Hashoah. The U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum is mandated by Congress to lead this national observance in America. The 8 Days of Remembrance this year will begin on May 1st.

On the Hebrew calendar, April 19, 1943 was the 14th of Nissan – the day before Passover, a very important and happy holiday. Orthodox Jews objected to this date for a Holocaust Remembrance day.  The 27th of Nissan was chosen instead for Holocaust Remembrance because this date falls beyond Passover but within the time span of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising.

The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising ended with the destruction of Mila 18, a house which was the entrance to an underground bunker where Jews were hiding from the SS men who were trying to take them to the Treblinka extermination camp.  Today a memorial stone marks the location of the house.    (more…)

February 7, 2011

Jews from the Warsaw Ghetto were sent to the Treblinka death camp — except for Norman Finkelstein’s parents

Filed under: Germany, Holocaust — Tags: , , , — furtherglory @ 11:30 am

Way back in the year 2000, I purchased a book, written by Norman G. Finkelstein, entitled The Holocaust Industry. Finkelstein mentioned on page 85 that his mother was “A survivor of the Warsaw Ghetto, Majdanek concentration camp and slave labor camps at Czestochowa and Skarszysko-Kamiena.”  I was puzzled by this because I had visited Warsaw in October 1998 and learned that the Jews in the Warsaw Ghetto had been transported to Treblinka.

What was so special about Finkelstein’s mother that she was sent to Majdanek, instead of Treblinka?  Did she first go to Treblinka and was then transferred to Majdanek, or was she sent on a special train that went toward Treblinka, and then turned south at the junction near Treblinka, and continued on to Majdanek?  Finkelstein didn’t explain why she managed to survive when all the other Jews in the Warsaw Ghetto, except his parents, were killed at Treblinka.

Also on page 85, Finkelstein revealed that his mother received  only $3,500 in compensation from Germany.  Elsewhere in his book, Finkelstein wrote that his father had received around $100,000 from Germany before he died.  He doesn’t explain why his mother was slighted.

Memorial in the former Warsaw Ghetto

The photo above shows a memorial which was built at the spot where the Umschlagplatz once stood, on the northern boundary of the Warsaw Ghetto. The Umschlagplatz was where the Jews in the Warsaw Ghetto had to assemble to board the trains which transported them to the death camp at Treblinka, beginning in July 1942.  The daily deportations continued until Sept. 12, 1942.

According to my tour guide, the design of the Memorial is supposed to represent a freight car with the door open. This memorial is located right on the sidewalk of a very busy street; notice the trolley car tracks on the street just a few feet in front of it.

On July 22, 1942 the Warsaw Ghetto was surrounded by Ukrainian and Latvian soldiers in German SS uniforms, as the liquidation of the Ghetto began in response to an order given by Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler that “the resettlement of the entire Jewish population of the General Government be carried out and completed by December 31.” The General Government was the central portion of the former country of Poland that was occupied by the Germans between 1939 and 1944.

Two days before, on July 20ieth, the Judenrat (Jewish leaders) had been ordered to prepare for the resettlement (Aussiedlung) of the “non-productive elements” to the East. The Jews in the Warsaw Ghetto were to report voluntarily to the Umschlagplatz (collection point) at the corner of Stawki and Dzika streets, near a railroad siding for the Ostbahn (Eastern Railroad), on which they would be “transported to the East” on crowded freight cars.

Old photo shows the Umschlagplatz

The old photo above shows the location of the Umschlagplatz, which was where the Memorial now stands.

According to Raul Hilberg in his book, The Destruction of the European Jews, “As soon as the order was posted, a mad rush started for working cards. Many forgings took place and in the ghetto, everyone from top to bottom was frantic.” A similar scene is depicted in the movie, Schindler’s List, when a Jewish professor in Krakow suddenly becomes an experienced metal worker with forged papers, aged by tea stains.

Did Finkelstein’s mother have some special skill that made her too valuable to kill?  Did she forge some papers which showed that she was an experienced worker?

Side view of the Memorial in the former Warsaw Ghetto

The chairman of the Warsaw Jewish Council, Adam Czerniakow, was ordered by the Nazis to deliver 6,000 Jews per day, seven days a week, to the Umschlagplatz for deportation to Treblinka on the Bug river near the eastern border of German occupied Poland. A day later, the number was increased to 7,000 per day. Rather than cooperate with the Nazis, Czerniakow committed suicide on July 23rd, the first day that Jews were assembled ready for deportation.

The interior of the Memorial in the former Warsaw Ghetto

After I took this photo and returned to my tour guide’s car, she pointed out that two men immediately went inside the Memorial. She said that they were Israeli guards who were checking to see if I had defaced the Memorial with a swastika. Actually, there was a swastika, already painted on the wall inside the Memorial.  I was worried that I would be accused of painting this swastika, and that I might be hunted down and killed by the Israelis.

After Poland was conquered, following the joint invasion by the Germans and the Soviet Union in September 1939, the Polish Army escaped to Romania and the Polish leaders set up a government in exile in London. The Polish soldiers continued to fight underground as partisans in the Polish Home Army.

Raul Hilberg wrote the following in his book, The Destruction of the European Jews:

The Polish underground thereupon contacted the Ghetto. The answer of the Jewish leaders was that perhaps 60,000 Jews would be deported, but that it was “inconceivable that the Germans would destroy the lot.” The Jews had one request, which the Polish Home Army was glad to fulfill. They handed to the Poles an “appeal addressed to the world and to the Allied nations in particular.” The Jewish leadership demanded that the German people be threatened with reprisals. The appeal was immediately transmitted to London, but the BBC maintained complete radio silence. As we shall have occasion to find out later, the Jews did not have many friends in London, or for that matter, in Washington.

In his book The Holocaust, Martin Gilbert wrote the following:

In those seven weeks, a total of 265,000 Jews were sent by train for ‘resettlement in the East’. Their actual destination was Treblinka and its three gas-chambers. Death, not slave labour, was their fate. It was the largest slaughter of a single community, Jewish or non-Jewish, in the Second World War.

According to the U.S. Holocaust Museum, by the Summer of 1944, all the Jewish Ghettos in Eastern Europe had been closed and two million Ghetto Jews had been transported to concentration camps or death camps. The three main death camps for the Ghetto Jews were the Operation Reinhard camps: Treblinka, Belzec and Sobibor, all of which were near the eastern border of German occupied Poland.

Norman Finkelstein is considered by some Jews to be a “Holocaust denier.”  Was it his parents who made him a denier?  On page 5 of his book, he wrote that both of his parents were “survivors of the Warsaw Ghetto and the Nazi concentration camps.”  One of the main points in his book is that there are numerous survivors still living and getting compensation from Germany.  He quoted his mother as saying that with so many survivors, whom did Hitler kill?

According to the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum, the Warsaw Ghetto made up 2.4 percent of the land in the  city of Warsaw, but it contained 30% of the city’s population. To create the Ghetto, the Nazis moved 113,000 Christian residents out and moved 138,000 Jewish residents in. The remainder of the Warsaw Jews were already living in the neighborhood of the Ghetto.

In the Warsaw Ghetto, 450,000 Jews were forced to live in very crowded conditions. The population of the Ghetto included Jews from the surrounding villages in the General Government of German occupied Poland. The Ghetto was divided into two sections, the Small Ghetto at the southern end and the Large Ghetto on the north.

By the time deportations to the extermination camps began, about 100,000 residents of the Ghetto had died of starvation or disease, according to Raul Hilberg.

The last remaining section of the Warsaw Ghetto wall

To create the Warsaw Ghetto, the Germans built 11 miles of brick walls around the Jewish quarter; this area was then closed to outsiders on November 15, 1940. The wall was torn down in 1943 when the Ghetto was liquidated. Today there is only one short section of the original wall remaining; this section was outside the Ghetto when the original Ghetto became a smaller area after most of the Jews had been deported.

The photo above shows this remaining section of the wall, which is about 10 feet high. According to my tour guide, parts of the wall which connected two buildings, such as this section, were built higher than the rest of the wall, which was mostly lower than 10 feet.

Map shows the size of the Warsaw Ghetto

A map showing the area of the Ghetto is on the last remaining section of the wall, as shown in the photo above. The courtyard in front of the wall is located at ul. Zlota 62. (Some guidebooks says the address is Number 60 Zlota Street.)

Before World War II started on September 1, 1939, there were 375,000 Jews living in Warsaw. This was as many as in all of France, and more than in the whole country of Czechoslovakia. Only the city of New York had a larger Jewish population than Warsaw.

During the 15th century, the Jews had been expelled from the city of Warsaw, just as they were in Krakow. Between 1527 and 1768, Jews had been banned from living in Warsaw.

After Poland was partitioned for the third time in 1795 between Russia, Prussia and Austria, the Jews began coming back to Warsaw, which was in the Russian section, and by the start of World War I, Jews made up forty percent of the population of the city.

During the 19th century and up until the end of World War I, Warsaw was in the Pale of Settlement where all Russian Jews were forced to live; when Poland regained its independence after World War I, Warsaw was once again a Polish city. From the beginning, the Jewish district was located southeast of Old Town Warsaw.

March 10, 2010

Controversial photo from the Warsaw ghetto

Filed under: Holocaust, World War II — Tags: , , , , — furtherglory @ 10:57 am

Photo Credit: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum

Here is the USHMM caption of the photo above:

“Jews captured by German troops during the Warsaw Ghetto uprising in April-May 1943. This photograph appeared in the Stroop Report, an album compiled by SS Major General Juergen Stroop, commander of German forces that suppressed the Warsaw ghetto uprising. The album was introduced as evidence at the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg. In the decades since the trial this photo has become one of the iconographic images of the Holocaust.”

The following quote, from the USHMM, explains the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising:

In the summer of 1942, about 300,000 Jews were deported from Warsaw to Treblinka. When reports of mass murder in the killing center leaked back to the Warsaw ghetto, a surviving group of mostly young people formed an organization called the Z.O.B. (for the Polish name, Zydowska Organizacja Bojowa, which means Jewish Fighting Organization). The Z.O.B., led by 23-year-old Mordecai Anielewicz, issued a proclamation calling for the Jewish people to resist going to the railroad cars. In January 1943, Warsaw ghetto fighters fired upon German troops as they tried to round up another group of ghetto inhabitants for deportation. Fighters used a small supply of weapons that had been smuggled into the ghetto. After a few days, the troops retreated. This small victory inspired the ghetto fighters to prepare for future resistance.

On April 19, 1943, the Warsaw ghetto uprising began after German troops and police entered the ghetto to deport its surviving inhabitants. Seven hundred and fifty fighters fought the heavily armed and well-trained Germans. The ghetto fighters were able to hold out for nearly a month, but on May 16, 1943, the revolt ended. The Germans had slowly crushed the resistance. Of the more than 56,000 Jews captured, about 7,000 were shot, and the remainder were deported to camps.

The Stroop Report is very important because it was mentioned in the opening statement by Robert Jackson, the chief prosecutor at the Nuremberg International Military Tribunal:

I shall not dwell on this subject longer than to quote one more sickening document which evidences the planned and systematic character of the Jewish persecutions. I hold a report written with Teutonic devotion to detail, illustrated with photographs to authenticate its almost incredible text, and beautifully bound in leather with the loving care bestowed on a proud work. It is the original report of the SS Brigadier General Stroop in charge of the destruction of the Warsaw Ghetto, and its title page carries the inscription, “The Jewish ghetto in Warsaw no longer exists.” It is characteristic that one of the captions explains that the photograph concerned shows the driving out of Jewish “bandits”; those whom the photograph shows being driven out are almost entirely women and little children. It contains a day-by-day account of the killings mainly carried out by the SS organization, too long to relate, but let me quote General Stroop’s summary:

“The resistance put up by the Jews and bandits could only be suppressed by energetic actions of our troops day and night. The Reichsführer SS ordered, therefore, on 23 April 1948, the clearing out of the ghetto with utter ruthlessness and merciless tenacity. I, therefore, decided to destroy and burn down the entire ghetto without regard to the armament factories. These factories were systematically dismantled and then burned. Jews usually left their hideouts, but frequently remained in the burning buildings and jumped out of the windows only when the heat became unbearable. They then tried to crawl with broken bones across the street into buildings which were not afire. Sometimes they changed their hideouts during the night into the ruins of burned buildings. Life in the sewers was not pleasant after the first week. Many times we could hear loud voices in the sewers. SS men or policemen climbed bravely through the manholes to capture these Jews. Sometimes they stumbled over Jewish corpses; sometimes they were shot at. Tear gas bombs were thrown into the manholes and the Jews driven out of the sewers and captured. Countless numbers of Jews were liquidated in sewers and bunkers through blasting. The longer the resistance continued the tougher became the members of the Waffen SS, Police and Wehrmacht who always discharged their duties in an exemplary manner. Frequently Jews who tried to replenish their food supplies during the night or to communicate with neighboring groups were exterminated.

“This action eliminated,” says the SS commander, “a proved total of 56,065. To that, we haste to add the number killed through blasting, fire, etc., which cannot be counted.” (1061-PS)

We charge that all atrocities against Jews were the manifestation and culmination of the Nazi plan to which every defendant here was a party.

The defendants at the Nuremberg IMT were charged with participating in a “common plan” to commit war crimes, and Jackson is saying that the “Stroop Report” is evidence of that plan, which means that the photo of the little boy with his hands in the air, which is in the “Stroop Report,” is included in the evidence of a “common plan” to exterminate the Jews.

So far, so good.  So why is this photo controversial?  Well, some people think that this photo was not taken in the Warsaw Ghetto, so what is it doing in the “Stroop Report”?  Good question.

Long after the war, Tsvi Nussbaum claimed to be the 7-year-old boy in the photo above.  According to the “Stroop Report,” the photo was taken during the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising which took place between April 19, 1943 and May 16, 1943 before Tsvi was arrested. However, Nussbaum claims that the photo was taken when he was arrested on July 13, 1943 in front of the Hotel Polski on the Aryan side of the Warsaw Ghetto.

Tsvi C. Nussbaum claims that he and his aunt had been living as Gentiles in the Hotel Polski.  Since they had foreign passports, they were sent, after they were arrested, to the Bergen-Belsen detention camp as “exchange Jews.”

Tsvi was one of the survivors of Bergen-Belsen. In 1945, he went to Palestine, but in 1953 he moved to America. He became a doctor, specializing in ear, nose and throat, in Rockland County in upstate New York.

Coincidentially, another person arrested at the Hotel Polski was the  beautiful Franceska Mann, who allegedly shot  SS man Josef Schillinger in the undressing room of the gas chamber in Krema II at the Auschwitz II death camp, also known as Birkenau.  Franceska Mann was one of the Jews who had a foreign passport and was initially sent to Bergen-Belsen.  I blogged about Schillinger on February 5, 2010.

So who is right, Nussbaum or the “Stroop Report”? And why would Jürgen Stroop put a fake photo into his report?  Was he trying to impress his superior officers with the brutality of the soldiers who put down the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising?  I don’t know the answer to these questions.  You tell me.

The reason why these questions are important is this:  If the photo was taken in the Warsaw Ghetto and if Nussbaum is the boy in the photo and he wasn’t killed, then this means that the Nazis  had no “common plan” to commit the war crime of genocide of the Jews.  If Nussbaum is the boy in the photo, regardless of where it was taken, and he survived, then there was no “common plan” to kill all the Jews.  That is why so many researchers have concentrated on this photo, trying to prove something, one way or another.